Current scenario and future prospects of activated carbon preparation from agroindustrial wastes: A review

Muhammad Fazal-ur-Rehman

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Activated carbon, also known as activated charcoal, which is crude form of graphite, substance which is used lead pencils. Activated carbon is widely used in dye removal and also has other applications. Activated carbon has high surface
area, adsorption capacity, and high adsorption rates from the gas or liquid phases. Activated carbon is also used in air purification, chromatography, energy storage, electrode materials for li-ion batteries biosensors, hydrogen storage,
immobilizing the biomolecules. Therefore, activated carbon has wide applications. It is used in gas separation, solvents recovery and as catalyst. It is also used in waste-water treatment plants to remove the organic pollutants from
the drinking water. For most of these applications, activated carbon is prepared from many resources by implementation of different chemical methods. The Activated carbon can also be prepared by different raw carbon resources like
lignite, peat, unburnt coal and biomass wastes such as wood, sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, coconut shell, coffee beans, oil-palm stone, and Rice husk. Lignocellulosic waste materials, paulownia wood, pomegranate seeds, cattail, olivetree, jatropha hull, bamboo, orange peel, thevetia peruviana, ramie, grape stalk, pine apple waste biomass, and almond shell. Activated carbon is also produced by pyrolysis of physic nut waste. Activated Carbon, prepared from all these sources,
have high surface area, adsorption capacity, high adsorption rates for liquid gas separation, adsorption. Activated Carbon is widely used in waste water treatment to remove the pollutants. This review explores some of methods to prepare the
activated carbon from different local sources reported by many researchers in recent years.