Ground water quality of selected areas of Punjab and Sind Provinces, Pakistan: Chemical and microbiological aspects
Farah Deeba, Naeem Abbas , Muhammad Tahir Butt and Muhammad Irfan
The assessment of groundwater is essential for the estimation of suitability of water for safe use. An attempt has been made to study the groundwater of selected areas of Punjab (Sheikhupura & Sahiwal) and Sindh (Sindh, Jawar Dharki and Dharki), Pakistan. The results indicate that pH, color and odor were all within limits of WHO that is pH ranges 6.5–8.5, colorless and odorless, respectively. The high values of suspended solids were observed in the Sindh-1 and Dharki samples. Microbiologically only Sahiwal and Jawar Dharki were found fit for drinking purpose. Trace metals analysis of Sheikhupura-1 and Sindh-1 showed that values do not fall within limits of WHO for Iron. The ionic concentration analysis showed that high bicarbonate (HCO3 -), ions are present in the samples of Sahiwal and Dharki; Sindh-1 and Jawar Dharki samples showed very high concentration for chloride ions, all samples were satisfactory level for sulphate (SO4 2-), sodium, magnesium and phosphate ions except samples of Sindh-1 and Jawar Dharki. High concentration of calcium and potassium ions was observed in samples of Sindh-1, while all other samples were found fit for drinking purposes in respect of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium ions. The high concentration of Fluoride was found only in Sheikhupura-2 samples.