Adulterating the quality of automotive gas oil using dual purpose kerosene: Effects on compression ignition engines, humans and environment
Temple Nwoburuigwe Chikwe and Mudiaga Chukunedum Onojake
Five combustible mixtures of automotive gas oil and dual purpose kerosene were obtained from a retail outlet and blended into different automotive gas oil (AGO) and dual purpose kerosene (DPK) proportions (85:15, 75: 25, 50:50, 25:75 &
15:85% (v/v)). Samples were analyzed using densitometer, hydrometer, karl fischer titrator, pour and cloud point tester based on American Standard for Testing and Materials (ASTM) with the aim of delimiting the degree to which adulteration affects the quality of the pure sample, impact on the environment as well as the effects on compression ignition engines. Results obtained from the analyses of the blended ratios show the following parameters in the ranges; density (0.858–0.827g/cm3); specific gravity@60 0F (0.859–0.828), kinematic viscosity (4.800–1.200 cSt), cloud point (7.000–2.000 oC), pour point (-15.000 – < -34.000 oC) and moisture content (500.000–1200.000 ppm). Results of the analyses showed that 85 % dual purpose kerosene in the blended mixture fell below American Standard for testing and materials (ASTM) and Department for Petroleum Resources (DPR) acceptable standard in terms of viscosity. A maximum of 15% dual purpose kerosene in the blended mixture fell within ASTM specification in terms of moisture content. Specific gravity, density, cloud point and pour point of all the bended samples were within specification. Adulterating automotive gas oil with dual purpose kerosene at (≥ 15:85 %) AGO:DPK ratio as well as the use of biomass as an alternative source of energy due to diversion of dual purpose kerosene for adulteration, results in the release of various types of harmful poly aromatic hydrocarbons to the environment through the exhaust of diesel engines and cooking respectively. It can also lead to reduction in compression ratio, power loss as well as wear and tear of engine parts.