Levels of selected metals in wild edible plant Embelia schimperi Vatke fruit under different agro-ecological zones, Ethiopia
Zelalem Pawlos, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi, Weldegebriel Yohannes and Asamene Embiale
Fruit is one of the major dietary sources of various antioxidant phytocompounds for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of macro and trace metals in Embelia schimperi Vatke, a wild edible plant fruit and its underlying soil
samples collected from three different areas (Chencha, Dega Damot and Fiche) of Ethiopia. Levels of selected metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) were determined by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Known weight of oven-dried Embelia schimperi Vatke fruit samples were wet-digested using 3 mL of (69-72%) HNO3 and 1 mL of (70%) HClO4 for (2:30 h) at temperature of (270 oC) and its soil with 3 mL of (69-72%) HNO3, 1 mL of (70%) HClO4 and 1 mL of (35%) HCl for 2 h at temperature of 240 oC. The validity of the optimized procedure was evaluated by the analysis of spiked samples whose recovery was in the range of 90.5-108%. The mean concentration range (mg/kg) of metals in Embelia schimperi Vatke fruit samples were K (13290-17972), Mg (681-855), Fe (337-774), Ca (4789-5380), Zn (22.8-35.8), Cu (10.2-14.9), Mn (36.4-48.2), Pb (4.42-5.21) and Cd (0.25-0.33), respectively. In the soil samples, highest concentration was observed
for Fe, followed by Ca, K, Mn and Mg, while lowest concentration was shown by Cd which was below detection limit in all the soil samples. One way analysis of variance indicated a significant difference between levels of metals (K and Mg).
Bioaccumulation factors exhibited significantly higher accumulation of K and Ca from the soil to the fruits, but for other elements, it was less than 1. The results revealed that the soil properties significantly affected the metal levels in the fruits.