The concepts of chemical behaviors and electron structure relationship of group III elements

C. P. Ukpaka and T. K. Bala

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The Lewis structures were used to illustrate the electron pair distribution, formal charge, oxidation state, and molecular shape of group III elements and their compounds. The Lewis structures were drawn for five representative compounds for each element (trihalides, oxides, hydroxides, boranes, and aluminosilicates) by following simple rules and conventions. The formal charges, oxidation states, and molecular shapes of the group III compounds were also calculated using the rules and conventions of Lewis structures and VSEPR theory. The results showed that group III elements tend to form compounds with a +3 oxidation state by losing all three valence electrons, but some of them can also form compounds with a +1 oxidation state by losing only the np electron. The results also showed that group III elements form different types of compounds with different bond types and bond polarities, depending on the electronegativity and valence of the other atoms. The results further showed that group III elements have different reactivities and applications based on their bonding and oxidation states. The study demonstrated that Lewis structures are a useful tool for understanding the bonding and reactivity of group III elements and their compounds. However, Lewis structures have some limitations and drawbacks, such as not showing the actual shape of molecules, not accounting for resonance or hybridization, and not providing accurate information on bond lengths and bond angles. Therefore, other methods and techniques, such as molecular orbital theory or valence bond theory can be used to complement and verify the findings in this study.