Issue 10

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H. A. Shindy. Problems and solutions in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry: A Review. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 97-105.

Abstract

This paper review is recommended for undergraduate students, graduate students, chemists, dyestuffs and colorists. They will find it interesting, informative and very readable. Several multi choice problems and their solutions in the basics and fundamentals of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry were represented in this paper review. Reviewing the basic information, fundamental understanding, principles and/or the  knowledge of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry via multi choice problems and their solutions is interesting type of reviewing and can be used as an excellent tool for measuring and/or test the deep understanding of undergraduate and graduate students for colors, dyes and pigments chemistry. The paper includes, contains and/or covers topics like, the relation between color and constitution and/or Witt's theory, fibers, definitions for dyes and pigments and other definitions and vital informations in color, dyes and pigments chemistry. The paper also involve synthesis, properties, classifications and uses of many aromatic and/or heterocyclic dyes. Such dyes, like nitro dyes, nitroso dyes, azo dyes, diarylmethane dyes, triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinone dyes, cyanine dyes, azine dyes, phthaleine dyes, indigoid dyes, acridine dyes, xanthen dyes and phthalocyanine dyes. This paper review acts as a mordant and/or stabilizers for some of the basic informations, principles and/or the knowledge in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry. It is valuable both for getting an overview in the field of color, dyes and pigments chemistry and as a mine of information for the dyestuff chemists. In addition, this paper review can be used and/or will be most valuable in domestic and/or international chemistry competitions in organic chemistry as general and particularly, in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry. Besides, this paper review can be printed and used as a thesis and/or as a note book students learning and lectures. Also, it is can be used in  students examinations tests in chemistry departments and/or chemistry institutions of any domestic and/or international university. 

 

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V. O. Izionworu and Maxwell Okpara Ukeame. Effective service delivery through quality management system (QMS) in oil and gas servicing companies, a case study of selected firms, Port Harcourt. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 106-113.

Abstract

This study investigated the impact of Quality Management System (QMS) on effective service delivery in Oil and Gas Servicing Companies in selected firms in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The opinion of 50 respondents were sampled using questionnaires, interviews as well as observation from journals and texts used in this work to examine the Quality Management System (QMS) of the selected firms. Using simple percentages and the Chi-square () test of hypotheses, it was hypothetically established that the implementation of QMS practices, has impacted the work process, procedure and improvement on quality over the years in the Oil and Gas Servicing companies in Port Harcourt Nigeria. The research identified an adopted use of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) tool as a continual quality improvement initiative developed in the local content oil and gas servicing operation for equipment handling, management and to drive sustained improved performance quality processes as a key driver of a progressive that will place local content companies as an options for producing companies and at par with multinational oil and gas companies. 

 

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N. C. Ngobiri and Y. Li. Inhibition of pipeline steel corrosion in acidic environment using sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 114-122.

Abstract

The anti-corrosive properties of sulphadoxine + pyrimethamine (S+P) on the corrosion of pipeline steel in acidic environment were investigated using electrochemical techniques. The results obtained showed an excellent inhibition efficiency which increased with increase in inhibitor concentration. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased up to 99.04 % at 0.01M S+P and decreased with rise in temperature down to 85.93 % at 333 K and 0.01 M S+P, suggesting a physiosorptive mechanism of adsorption. Also the adsorption data was fitted into Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherms, while the inhibitive action was shown to proceed by mixed inhibition mode. 

 

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Anjani Solankee and Riki Tailor. Rapid and efficient synthesis of newer heterocyclic 2-azetidinone and 5-benzylidine-4-oxo-thiazolidine compounds and their pharmacological studies. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 123-134.

Abstract

A straightforward rapid and efficient protocol for the synthesis of 2-azetidinone (D1-10) and 5-benzylidine-4-oxo-thiazolidine (F1-10) has been designed and synthesized in order to find newer antimicrobial compounds. The structure of entitle compounds have been evaluated on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR as well as elemental microanalysis. The title compounds were screened for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of selected pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), Escherichia coli (MTCC 443), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424) using cup-plate agar diffusion method at 40 µg/ml concentration. Out of synthesized compounds, compound nos. D4, D5, D7, D8, D9and D10 have shown outstanding inhibitory effect against all pathogens and consider as the best bioactive desired antibacterial analogue of the series as compare to standard drugs Ampicilline and Chloramphenicol.

 

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Kemi Damilola Ogundipe and Adesola Babarinde. Comparative study on batch equilibrium biosorption of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) using plantain (Musa paradisiaca) flower: kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamics. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 135-149.

Abstract

The potential of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) flower to remove Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different process parameters like pH, contact time, biomass dose and initial metal ion concentration. The optimum pH for the biosorption of each of the metal ions is pH 6. The kinetic data obtained were subjected to four kinetic models, among which the pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to be the best model that describes the biosorption of each of the metal ions. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isotherms. In each case, the Freundlich isotherm model gave the best fit giving the sorption intensity (n) values of 1.17, 0.91 and 0.90 which indicate favourable sorption of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. The heat of the sorption process was estimated from Temkin Isotherm model and the mean free energy was estimated from D-R isotherm model to be 312.81Jmol-1, 223.61Jmol-1 and 316.55Jmol-1 for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Thermodynamically, the biosorption of each of the metal ions is endothermic and the order of spontaneity of the biosorption process being Cd(II)>Zn(II)>Pb(II). Similarly, positive change in entropy was observed for each, the order of disorderliness is Cd(II)>Zn(II)=Pb(II). 

 

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S. Isah, A. A. Oshodi and V. N. Atasie. Physicochemical properties of cross linked acha (digitaria exilis) starch with citric acid. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 150-157.

Abstract

Acha (Digitaria exilis) starch was isolated and crosslinked using citric acid. Physicochemical properties including solubility, water and oil absorption capacities, bulk density, foam capacity, pasting viscosity and granule morphology were determined. Decrease in these properties, except for the emulsion capacity (from 36 to 38%) and least gelation concentration (LGC) which increased from 6% to 8% were observed with modified derivative. General decline was observed with water absorption capacity (488% to 465%); oil absorption capacity (122 to 116%); pH of starch slurry (6.85 to 6.45); bulk density (0.5 to 0.41g/ml) and foam capacity (4.0 to 3.0%).The starch granule morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross linking may not have affected the shape but appearance and structural arrangements of the starch granules differ upon modification. The starch granules retain its polygonal shape and the granule size ranges between 6um to 8.57 um.   The infrared spectra of native acha starch and chemically modified derivative shown similar peaks, except for the additional peak in the cross-linked sample at 1614 cm-1 indicating the carbonyl bands stretching vibrations. Starch utilization as a food or feed relates to its physical and chemical properties. Cross linking altered these functional characteristics. Thus cross linking of Acha starch may find potential applications as good emulsifying agents, pharmaceutical excipients, disintegrants and drug carrier formulation. 

 

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Reena Patel, Shailesh kumar, Abhishek Verma and Sheila Srivastava. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of pharmaceutical drug (Gabapentin) by potassium bromate (KBrO3) in presence of micro amount of Ir(III) chloride as catalyst in acidic medium. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 158-164.

Abstract

The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of pharmaceutical drug (gabapentine) by potassium bromate (KBrO3) in presence of Micro amount of Ir(III) chloride as catalyst in acidic medium was studied in the temperature range 30 to 450 C. The reaction is carried out in the presence of mercuric acetate as a scavenger for chloride ion. 1-carboxy cyclohexane l-acetic acid was obtained as the oxidation product and identified chromatographically. The rate law followed a first order and zero order dependence with respect to KBrO3 and GBP respectively. The reaction followed first order with respect to Ir(III) chloride and [H+].Negligible effect of [Hg(OAc)2] and ionic strength of the medium was observed. Chloride ion positively influenced the rate of reaction. The values of rate constants observed at different temperatures (30 to 450C) were utilized to calculate the activation parameters. Feasible mechanism is proposed which are be composed with the kinetics, stochiometry and product of the reaction.  The rate law has been derived from obtained kinetic data. 

 

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V. R. Remya, V. K. Abitha. K, Priya Singh Rajput, Ajay Vasudeo Rane and Aastha Dutta. Silver nanoparticles green synthesis: A mini review. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 165-171.

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a significant field of contemporary research dealing with design, synthesis, and manipulation of particle structures ranging from in the region of 1-100 nm. Nanoparticles (NPs) have broad choice of applications in areas such as fitness care, cosmetics, foodstuff and feed, environmental health, mechanics, optics, biomedical sciences, chemical industries, electronics, space industries, drug-gene delivery, energy science, optoelectronics, catalysis, single electron transistors, light emitters, nonlinear optical devices, and photo-electrochemical applications. Nano Biotechnology is a speedily mounting scientific field of producing and constructing devices, an important area of research in nano biotechnology is the synthesis of NPs with different chemical compositions, sizes and morphologies, and controlled dispersities. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This assessment presents a general idea of silver nanoparticle preparation. The aim of this analysis article is, therefore, to replicate on the existing state and potential prediction, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries. 

 

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Mesert Abebe, Atakilt Abebe and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts of Verbena officinalis linn root or atuch (Amharic). Chemistry International 3(2) 172-184.

Abstract

Verbena officinalis Linn is a traditionally known medicinal plant which is used against a number of diseases including inflammatory conditions. In this study its antioxidant activity (reducing powers, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities), ferric reduction activity potential(FRAP), total flavonoid concentration and antimicrobial activities of 80%, 90%, 100% methanol  and chloroform  extracts of V. officinalis Linn root and 90% and100%  methanol  leaf extracts were determined. Its antioxidant activity increases with increase in amount of extract (10% to 40%v/v). Total flavonoid content(TFC) varied from 73.32 ± 0.002 mgQE/100g  of dry weight (90% methanol) to 42.39 ±0.032 mgQE/100g dry weight (chloroform),  2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), radical scavenging activity (%) was varied between 87.39% (90% methanol) to 45.57% (chloroform) while Ferric reducing antioxidant power was observed between  372.93 ± 0.04 mgAAE/100 g extract (90% methanol) to 129.41 ± 0.026 mgAAE/100 g  chloroform in  the root extract. The methanolic extract of the leaf showed less antioxidant activity than the methanolic extract of the root. Crude extracts of V. officinalis root showed various degree of antimicrobial activity towards drug resistance microbial pathogens. Growth inhibition tests against bacterial pathogens demonstrated concentration dependence. Moreover, gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to V. officinalis root extract when compared to gram negative bacteria. In general V. officinalis root and leave extracts possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. 

 

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N. C. Ngobiri and K. Okorosaye-Orubite. Adsorption and corrosion inhibition characteristics of two medicinal molecules. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 185-194.

Abstract

The corrosion inhibition characteristics of two medicinal molecules Phenylalanine and Rutin on mild steel in 1.0M Hydrochloric acid were evaluated using gravimetric method.  Corrosion inhibition efficiency of 83.78 and 90.40 % was obtained respectively after seven days. However, Phenylalanine showed weakly accumulative higher corrosion inhibition efficiency. The presence of both molecules in the corrosive environment   reduced the corrosion rate constant and increased the material half-life. Thermodynamic data calculated suggests a spontaneous adsorption of the molecules on the mild steel’s surface. 

 

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