Issue 11

Hits: 2537

Vishvanath D. Patil, Ketan P. Patil, Nagesh. R. Sutar and Prathamesh V. Gidh. Phenyl boronic acid - promoted efficient synthesis of perimidine derivatives under ambient conditions. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 195-201.

Abstract

Various biologically important perimidines derivatives have been efficiently synthesized in excellent from Napthalene-1,8-diamine and various ketones in presence of a catalytic amount of Phenyl boronic acid. This approach offers many advantages such as good product yield, short reaction time, easy isolation of products, mild reaction conditions.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Antonius Herry Cahyana, Natania and Ellyn. Study on the stability of antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase activities using soaking treatment of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) mucilage extracts. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 202-211.

Abstract

Okra fruit (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) especially its mucilaginous properties has been reported to have various health benefits include antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This research was aimed to investigate the stability of antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase activities (as one of antidiabetic activities) of okra mucilage through several soaking treatments in term optimizing mucilage extraction as well. Okra fruit and its peel are used and soaked with water in several soaking conditions: time (1, 4, 8, and 12 h); temperature (room and refrigerator temperature); and ratio of fruit:water (1:3 and 1:6). Analysis of yield percentage, flavonoid content, free radical scavenging activity and anti α-glucosidase activity were observed. The highest antioxidant activity of the sample was found in the extracting methods of 12 h in refrigerator temperature with soaking ratio of 1:6 (897.26+19.67 mg/L) while for anti α-glucosidase activity was found in extracting methods of 12 h in refrigerator temperature with soaking ratio of 1:3 (525.92±40.75mg/L). The stability of antioxidant and anti α-glucosidase activities of okra mucilage might be influenced by the extracted flavonoid content and other active components.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Adam Mekonnen Engida and Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi. Assessment of heavy metals in tobacco of cigarettes commonly sold in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 212-218.

Abstract

A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. This study reports Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn contents in tobacco of 11 brands of cigarette commonly sold in Ethiopia. The heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after wet digestion of cigarette tobacco using HNO3 and H2O2. The concentration of trace metals in the cigarettes ranged (mean) (μg/g), Cd: 1.3−7.6 (2.48±0.32), Pb: 0.50−12.50 (6.24±2.2), Cu: 2.89−25.35 (13.70±4.12) and Zn: 24.40−62.55 (36.22±7.50) while Ni was not detected in all the eleven brands of cigarettes. Comparable levels of trace metals were obtained in the tobacco of both imported and Ethiopian cigarettes. The average trace metal contents of cigarettes available in Ethiopia were Cd 1.82±0.39, Pb 4.23±0.97, Cu 10.2±3.1 and Zn 28.2±7.8 μg/cigarette and a person who smokes 20 cigarettes per day is estimated to increase his/her daily Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn retention by approximately 0.036, 0.085, 0.204, 0.564 mg/day, respectively. The results indicate that smoking and exposure to cigarette smoke is a serious problem to be taken into account when carrying out epidemiological studies on human exposure to trace metals.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Imran Ali, Mohammadd, Suhail and Al Arsh Basheer. Advanced spiral periodic classification of the elements. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 219-223.

Abstract

An advanced spiral periodic classification of the elements is presented. It has 32 groups and 8 periods. The proposed new periodic classification is a spiral arrangement of the elements, arranged by their increasing atomic number, electronic configuration and recurring chemical properties. The debatable positions of hydrogen and helium have been rectified in the spiral periodic classification. Two equations are also given for the diagonal relationship among the elements of 2nd and 3rd periods. This classification may be acceptable in the scientific community to work properly and easily. Moreover, this classification is also capable to predict the places of undiscovered elements.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Khedidja Benouis. Phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of pulses and their impact on health. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 224-229.

Abstract

At Sixty-eighth session, the United Nations General Assembly (20 December, 2013) announced that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses(IYP) and The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations was nominated for implementation of the International Year in collaboration with governments and different organizations. Pulses constitute an important source of several substances needed for good health, as phytochemicals and natural bioactive compounds.  These grains are very high in nutrients; rich with protein, complex carbohydrates, soluble dietary fiber, and can be stored for months without losing their high nutritional value. Also, pulses are characterized by their nitrogen fixing properties contribute to increased soil fertility and have beneficial effects on the environment, but their benefits are often underestimated. In this mini-review, the health benefits of phytochemicals and bioactive components in pulses briefly we described.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Atakilt Abebe, Abreham Sendek, Silesh Ayalew and Mulugeta Kibret. Copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing 1, 10-phenanthroline,  adenine and thymine: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activities. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 230-239.

Abstract

New copper complexes, [Cu(phen)2(Thy)]2Cl and [Cu(phen)2(Ad)]2Cl (phen = 1,10-phenantroline, Ad= Adenine (a purine nucleobase) and Thy= Thymine ( a pyrimidine nucleobase)), were synthesized and characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), conductivity measurement, UV-visible and infrared (IR) techniques. The complexes were tested for their antimicrobial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacterial strains. The results of in vitro antimicrobial activities were compared with the commercially available antimicrobial agents (Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol). This comparative study has demonstrated that [Cu(phen)2(Thy)]2Cl inhibited the growth of  Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureous (MRSA), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumonia) better than chloramphenicol by 11.25%, 19.41% and 25.35%, respectively. It also showed better activities than Ciprofloxacine on MRSA and K. pneumoniae by 2.50% and 12.13%, respectively. Similarly, [Cu(phen)2(Ad)]2Cl demonstrated better inhibitions than chloramphenicol against MRSA, E. coli and K. pneumoniae by 11.24%, 2.48% and 9.06%,  respectively. Therefore, after in vivo cytotoxicity investigations, these complexes could be considered as potential antimicrobial agents. 

|Full Text | PDF 




Vishvanath D. Patil, Ketan P. Patil, Nagesh R. Sutar and Prathamesh V. Gidh. Efficient synthesis of biscoumarins using zinc acetate as a catalyst in aqueous media. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 240-243.

 

Abstract

Bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin)methanes derivatives (1-9) were synthesized via one pot condensation reaction of various aromatic aldehyde and 4-hydroxycoumarin using zinc acetate as a catalyst in presence of water as a solvent. This mediated reaction of various aromatic and hetero-aromatic aldehydes using catalytic amounts of zinc acetate avoids the use of expensive, corrosive reagents, toxic solvents and provides operational simplicity. 

|Full Text | PDF 



 


Adejoh Ocheni and Uguge Clement. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-(pyrolidin-2-ylideneamino)-pyrazolidin-3-one and complex with iron(II). Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 244-249.

 

Abstract

A multifunctional ligand derivative of pyrrolidone has been synthesized by condensation reaction between 4-aminoantipyrine and 2-pyrrolidinone. The ligand and its Iron(II) complex were characterized using physical method and UV and IR techniques. The ligand and Fe(II) complex were tested  against broad spectrums of bacterial organisms and the results show that both the ligand and complex were active against various organisms tested. 

|Full Text | PDF 




Bamidele Amos-Tautua, Olusiji Ajileye, Solomon Ndoni, Funminiyi Bamidele and Adebayo Onigbinde. Evaluation of phenolic contents, free radical scavenging activity and functional group analysis of the leaf extract of a medicinal plant in Niger Delta Region. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 250-257.

 

Abstract

Funtumia africana leaves have been used by the people of Niger Delta region of Nigeria to treat diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the polyphenolic contents, antioxidant, and free radical scavenging activities of the leaf crude extract and fractions. The crude aqueous methanolic leaf extract of F. africana was extracted by liquid-liquid partitioning into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. The free radical scavenging activity of the fractions was measured in vitro by using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH), and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids in the extract and polar fractions.  The highest total phenolics, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity were found to be 1331.18±41.56 mg GAE/g, 833.96±19.14 mg QUE/g and 83.74±1.88 mgAAE/g respectively in the butanol fraction. The n-hexane and butanol fractions demonstrated strong DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.06±0.57 and 0.06±0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The DCM fraction showed the highest NO scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.741±0.07 mg/ml, while hexane fraction has negligible effect. The butanolic fraction has the highest ferric reducing antioxidant activity with value of 48.46±0.15 mg AAE/g of sample. 

|Full Text | PDF 



 


C. P. Ukpaka and F. U. Igwe. Modeling of the velocity profile of a bioreactor: the concept of biochemical process. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 258-267.

 

Abstract

This research covers the modeling of the velocity profile of a bioreactor with recycle; the concept of biochemical process. The biochemical process adopted is fermentation and a plug-flow fermenter (PFF) was taken as a case study. The derivation of workable model equations for monitoring and predicting the velocity profile of a PFF were obtained, together with obtaining the model equations for investigating the effect of microbial and substrate concentrations on the discharge coefficient, bioreactor’s volume. Constant data were sourced from literatures, together with hypothetical values to simulate the derived model equations using Mathlab.  The substrate concentration decreases with time as biomass population increases with time.  Effect of biomass concentration on discharge coefficient, shows that increase in biomass concentration brings a corresponding increase in the discharge coefficient as well as the bioreactor’s volume revealed that substrate concentration is depleting alongside with bioreactor’s volume follows the same trend of change when substrate concentration is decreasing irrespective of whether the length or area of the bioreactor is varied.  The effect of microbial concentration on bioreactor volume when area and length of bioreactor are varied reveals that the process followed same trend only that there is a presence of lag phase upon the influence of inhibitors.  The inverse substrate concentration increases, the space velocity also increases, and there is a linear trend of change on the inverse substrate concentration with respect to space velocity. 

|Full Text | PDF 



 


Adane Abebe, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi and Ayalew Debebe. Assessment of essential and non-essential metals in popcorn and cornflake commercially available in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 268-276.

 

Abstract

The levels of essential and non-essential metals in popcorn and cornflake were determined in samples collected from an open market and supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The samples were mineralized by wet digestion method. The volumes of reagents, digestion temperature and digestion time were optimized after proper sample pretreatment. 1 g of the powdered sample was digested with 10 mL of the mixture of HNO3 (69-72%), HClO4 (60%) and H2O2 (30%) in a volume ratio of 6:2:2 (v/v) for 3 hours at 120 0C on a Kjeldahl digestion apparatus. The levels of metals in the digest were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (for major metals: K, Na, Mg, Ca) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (for trace and heavy metals: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd). The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by analyzing the digest of the spiked samples with standard solution and the percentage recoveries varied from 91.2–109%. The level of the metals determined (mg/kg dry weight) were: K 1293±233, Na 148±3, Mg 387±11, Ca 97.9±4.2, Cr 0.68±0.09, Mn (6.17±0.18, Fe 9.5± 2.1, Co 1.41±0.16, Cu 0.09±0.007, Zn 88.3±9.7 and Pb 0.94±0.29 in the popcorn and K 612±70, Na 410±5, Mg 323±11, Ca 196±99, Cr 0.30±0.0.07, Mn 3.0±0.1, Fe 5.5± 0.74, Co 0.32±0.03, Cu 0.30±0.01, Zn 40.7±2.5 and Pb 0.36±0.03 in the cornflake while the concentration of Cd and Ni were below the detection limit in both the samples. K and Zn were present at the highest levels among major and trace metals, respectively. The popcorn and cornflake samples purchased from Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) were free from the toxic metals Cd and Ni, but not from Pb.   

|Full Text | PDF 




 Limenew Abate, Atakilt Abebe and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Studies on antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts   of Plantago   lanceolata   leaves. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 277-287.

 

Abstract

In this study, three different antioxidant activity quantification methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), reducing power, FRAP and peroxide value determination including total phenolic, TP, total flavonoid, TF assays of crude leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata were carried out. The extracts showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays in a concentration dependent manner. The crude extracts were found to possess higher ferric reducing activity ranging from 336.58 ± 0.052mgAAE/100g(90% methanol) to 172.94 ± 0.032 mgAAE/100g(petroleum ether) and DPPH activity varied from 90.6% (90% methanol) to 36.04% (petroleum ether). Strong correlation of TPC with AEACDPPH and AEACFRAP (R2 = 0.9033 and R2 = 0.8538 respectively) implied that compounds in the extract were proficient to scavenge the DPPH free radical and reducing ferric ions into ferrous ions. Moreover, peroxide values of the extracts were obtained and varied from 19.8meq/kg (90% methanol) to 379meq/kg(petroleum ether) and 3.1meq/kg (90% methanol) to 119meq/kg (petroleum ether) at 70oc and room temperature respectively. Therefore, P. lanceolata leaf extracts as compared to the control showed effective activity in delaying oxidation of the oil. Antimicrobial capacity evaluation of crude extract against different gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were also evaluated and a higher degree of antimicrobial activity with mean zone of inhibition ranging from zero to 26mm were detected. MIC and MBC values from 6.25%   up to 25% were also confirmed for the crude extracts.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Kidanemariam Desta and Meareg Amare. Validated UV-Visible spectrometry using water as a solvent for determination of chloroquine in tablet samples. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 288-295.

 

Abstract

Reported methods including the official methods for determination of chloroquine in tablet samples use carcinogenic organic solvents. In this study, UV-Vis spectrometry using water as a solvent was developed for determination of chloroquine phosphate in pharmaceutical tablet dosage forms. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and USP guidelines. The absorbanceof chloroquinephosphate in distilled water at of 343 nm showed linear dependence on concentration in the range 10.88-30.56 µg mL-1 with determination coefficient of 0.99972. Recovery results in the range 98.79–101.20% and low coefficient of variation values for intra-day and inter-day precisions (0.37% and 0.76%, respectively) showed the accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The method was used for determination of chloroquine phosphate in tablet formulations of different brands. Results in the range 100.63–103.52% of the labeled chloroquine phosphate in tablet formulations confirmed the applicability of the developed method for real sample analysis. Hence, the developed UV-Vis method using environmentally friendly water as a solvent, with an excellent accuracy and precision showed that the developed method can be a potential substituent for the official reference methods.  

|Full Text | PDF 




D. O. Kehinde, K. O. Ogunwenmo, B. Ajeniya, M. B. Ogunnowo and A. O. Onigbinde. Effects of X-ray irradiation on growth physiology of Arachis Hypogaea (Var. Kampala). Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 296-300.

 

Abstract

Small doses of X-ray may stimulate cellular activities and growth while higher doses may cause higher aberrations. Seeds of Arachis hypogaea cv Kampala were exposed singly to X-ray radiations (6 mA-77 mA)  X-ray significantly decreased seed germination above 6 mA, reduced root and shoot growth as X-ray exposure increased. X-ray radiation causes chromosomal aberration. Therefore higher X-ray radiation affects the plant germination negatively by retarding the growth.  

|Full Text | PDF 




K. Legrouri, E. Khouya, H. Hannache, M. El Hartti, M. Ezzine and R. Naslain. Activated carbon from molasses efficiency for Cr(VI), Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption: A mechanistic study. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 301-310.

 

Abstract

Activated carbon was prepared from molasses, which are natural precursors of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry. A simple elaboration process, based on chemical activation with phosphoric acid, was proposed. The final product, prepared by activation of molasses/phosphoric acid mixture in air at 500°C, presented high surface area (more than 1400 m2/g) and important maximum adsorption capacity for methylene blue (625 mg/g) and iodine (1660 mg/g). The activated carbon (MP2(500)) showed a good potential for the adsorption of Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The affinity for the three ions was observed in the following order Cu2+> Cr6+> Pb2+. The process is governed by monolayer adsorption following the Langmuir model, with a correlation coefficient close to unity.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Tsegay Hiwot. Determination of  oil and biodiesel  content ,  physicochemical properties of  the oil extracted from avocado seed (Persea Americana)  grown  in Wonago  and  Dilla  (gedeo zone), southern  Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 311-319.

 

Abstract

The avocado seeds were collected from Dilla and Wonago in gedeo zone, southern part of Ethiopia for oil extraction and biodiesel production. The collected seeds were oven dried and crushed in to powder by mortar and pestle. A soxhlet extraction was used for extraction of the oil. The solvent used for oil extraction was n-hexane. The extracted oil was separated from the solvents by vacuum rata evaporator. The oil content, biodiesel content and the physico-chemical parameters of the oil as well as the biodiesel were determined .The oil content and biodiesel content is 27.6% and 95.2% for avocado seed grown in Wonago and 27.2% and 94.86% for avocado seed grown in Dilla respectively. The physico-chemical parameters of the oil and biodiesel were determined and the result shows that the acid value of (4, 4.3, 0.89,0.92), saponification value (223, 219 ), Kinematic viscosity (36,7,5.02,37.44,5.15), Density (933,882,936,884g/ml),  Higher heating (38,40.5,37,40), Ester  content (95.2,94.86)  respectively. Based on the GC-MS analysis of the biodiesel, four FAME compounds were identified. These are methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate , methyl oleate and methyl  stearate. From the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel determined avocado seed oil methyl ester could be used as an alternative energy resource in diesel engine.  

|Full Text | PDF 




Noria Kada Benabdallah,  Djamila Harrache, Alba Mir, Miguel de la Guardia, Fatima-Zahra Benhachem. Bioaccumulation of trace metals by red alga Corallina elongata in the coast of Beni Saf, west coast, Algeria. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 220-231.

 

Abstract

The aim of present research was to study the accumulation of trace metals s (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Co) by the red alga Corallina elongata, collected in four sampling sites located in the Beni saf coast (Algerian west coast), where two of them are characterized by discharges of urban effluents or from port activity, and the two others are seaside resorts. The differences were observed between sampling sites for the presence some heavy metals. Indeed, it appears that the bioaccumulation of Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb by red alga is from continental origin, such as discharges of urban effluents or those derived from port activity. However, the accumulation of Zn, Co, Cr by this alga is not influenced by the surrounding environment, or that the bioavailability of these elements is lower, therefore, it seems that bioaccumulation of these metals by Corallina elongata is influenced by other factors. The spatio-temporal variations show that the accumulation of metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb in the red alga is highest in summer. However, the concentration of Co and Cd tend to be accumulated in the alga, in winter. The Fe concentration was a good predictor of  Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni,V  accumulation in this species of alga. A strong correlation was observed between Fe and Mn, which confirms the big similarity of their biochemical roles, already known in the marine environment. However, Zn inhibits Cd accumulation in red alga. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation is associated with nature of the metal, degree of contamination of sampling site, physicochemical properties of the marine environment and the season.  

|Full Text | PDF 




R. M. Abdel Aal, I. I. Abd El Gawad and Z. M. Essam. Novel pyrazolo pyrazoly heterocyclic in the synthesis of positive solvatochromic cyanine dyes. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 232-241.

 

Abstract

Novel cyanine dyes monomethine, bismonomethine and trimethine cyanine dyes were synthesized from 5-hydroxy-2-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-2-ium as a nucleus.  Structure confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, mass and visible was determined. The electronic visible absorption spectra of all the newly synthesized cyanine dyes were investigated in 95% ethanol solution. Solvatochromism for the newly prepared cyanine dyes were performed in pure solvents having different polarities.  

|Full Text | PDF 




S. Jafarinejad. Recent developments in the application of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 241-250.

 

Abstract

Oily wastewater treatment in the petroleum industry may generally be classified as process wastewater pretreatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment or polishing. In secondary treatment, dissolved oil and other organic pollutants may be consumed biologically by microorganisms. Biological treatment of complex chemicals in the petroleum industry wastewaters is specially challenging due to the inhibition and/or toxicity of these compounds when they serve as microbial substrates. Processes such as sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology which promote the mineralization of the petroleum industry wastewaters containing toxic compounds seem to be promising. In this study, principles of SBR, modifications in SBR technology, effective parameters on SBR process, and recent developments in the application of SBR technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed.  

|Full Text | PDF 




 

News

Researchers who are seeking publishing opportunities of valuable research papers are invited to submit their articles for publication

Submit your article at: : editorci@bosaljournals.com

Indexed: DRJI, CSA, NIKI, SIS database, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), ResearchBib, AcademicKeys,google scholar, Infobase, Publons, ROAD: The Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources, OALib, ISI-JIF, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig, WZB-Germany, CASSI, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB)-Germany

Under Evaluation: Web of Science, Scopus and others……..

Submision is open for next issue