Issue 12

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Wondu Dagnaw and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Preliminary phytochemical screening, isolation and structural elucidation of chloroform leaf extracts of Maesa lanceolata. Chemistry International 3(4), (2017) 251-257

Abstract

The aim of this study was to screen the phytochemical constituents, isolate and elucidate the structure of chloroform extracts from the leaves of Maesa lanceolata. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract of Maesa lanceolata was done following standard procedures and the tests revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides and saponins in the crude extracts. The chloroform extract of the leaves of M. lanceolata led to the isolation of one compound, C1. Structure determination was accomplished by means of spectroscopic methods (IR, 13C and 1H NMR). According to the spectral data (IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and DEPT), probably Myrsenene was identified which is reported for the first time from M. lanceolata.

  

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Reda Mahmoud Abdel Aal, Mihai A. Gitru, Zahraa Mohammed Essam. 2017. Novel synthetized near infrared cyanine dyes as sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells based on nano-TiO2. Chemistry International 3(4) 258-267

Abstract

The shortage of energy resources and increasing demand of alternative resources has become urgent priority for the world. Therefore research in this area is extremely important and promising as in renewable energy. Thus complete solar cells sensitized with cyanine dyes 3-5, having near infrared absorption band optimized for solar cell, are synthesized, characterized and studied in the sun light conversion efficiency. The obtained results should be valid for large studies to reveal the main problems in obtaining sufficient performance of near infrared absorbing dyes.

  

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S. Jafarinejad. Activated sludge combined with powdered activated carbon (PACT process) for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment: A review. Chemistry International 3(4) 268-277.

Abstract

Treatment of petroleum industry wastewater by a conventional process such as activated sludge may be hindered by the presence of recalcitrant organic compounds; therefore, tertiary treatments for wastewater polishing are required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adding to the activated sludge process can lead to a higher quality of treated wastewater, a more stable system and the production of reusable water. In this study, history, principles, mechanisms, and advantages of powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT) process, selection of carbon, typical configuration of a refinery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consisting of the PACT process, and application and/or performance of the PACT technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed. Several laboratory, pilot and full scale studies have demonstrated that PACT technology can be useful for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment. PACT process can generally be applied for the petroleum industry wastewater in those cases where stringent standards require to be met for certain contaminants.

  

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1    S. Fait, S. Fakhi, M. El Mzibri, Z. Faiz, H. Fougrach, W. Badri, A. Smouni, M. Fahr.Distribution of metallic trace elements (ETM) in surface soils around the mediouna discharge (southern of Casablanca).Chemistry International 3(4), (2017) 278-285.

Abstract

The objective of present research was to characterize the surface soils located at 300, 600 and 1000m of an uncontrolled landfill. The work also aims to evaluate the levels and spatial distribution of metallic trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co and As) in these soils. Soil samples were collected in 36 points around the landfill. Results showed that Cd, Pb, Zn are concentrated in the soils rich in clay and carbonates, and in organic matter, located at 300 m from the landfill. The basic pH of all soils enhances the retention of these metals. On the other hand, As present in soils at 300, 600 and 1000 m at concentrations slightly higher than those of referenced soils were apparently mobilized by water from the solid/water interfaces. The other metals Cu, Ni, Co, Cr are present at very lowconcentrations.

  

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1.   Okenwa U. Igwe and Chisom Friday. Volatile constituents of hydrocolloids isolated from Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum seeds. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 286-291.

Abstract

The seed endosperms of Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum are known materials for soup thickening in Southeast and some other parts of Nigeria. The hydrocolloids responsible for the thickening effect were isolated from the seed endosperms and characterised using GC-MC technique. The volatile fraction of A. africana seed hydrocolloids showed the presence of seventeen constituents consisting of aromatic (0.80 %), hydrocarbons (7.67 %), phenolic (0.39 %), esters (10.19 %), fatty acids (36.35 %), alcohols (42.24 %) and steroid (2.36 %). On the other hand, twenty two compounds were identified in the seed hydrocolloids of D. microcarpum. They consist of hydrocarbons (20.32 %), aromatics (2.14 %), aldehyde (0.49 %), phenolic (0.37 %), fatty acids (67.80 %), esters (5.09 %) and alcohol (3.80 %). This investigation reveals that the two hydrocolloids contain appreciable amount of volatile phytochemicals that could provide certain physiological benefits to the body. Hydrocolloids from D. microcarpum contain more volatile phytochemicals than that of A. africana.

  

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1. Fenta Minas, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi and Seyoum Leta. Chemical precipitation method for chromium removal and its recovery from tannery wastewater in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 291-305.

Abstract

Most tanneries in Ethiopia (90%) do not treat and very few (10%) partially treat their effluent before discharging it into the receiving water bodies. The untreated tannery effluent causes tremendous pollution of water resources in the country, especially due to its high organic loading and chromium content. Chromium(III) salts are the most widely used chemicals for tanning processes, but only about 60-70% of total chromium salts reacts with the hides and about 30-40% of the chromium remain in the solids and liquid wastes (especially spent tanning solutions). Therefore, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of these wastewaters is necessary for environmental protection and economic reasons. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative process for removing and recovering trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via chemical precipitation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and magnesium oxide (MgO). The effects of pH, stirring time, settling rate and sludge volume were studied in batch experiments. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Cr concentration. The results showed that removal efficiencies of the precipitating agents NaOH (99.97%), Ca(OH)2 (99.97%) and MgO ( 99.98%) at optimum pH values were not significantly different. However, there was a significant difference in sludge volume of NaOH (590 mL), Ca(OH)2 (412 mL) and MgO (85 mL). The optimum pH of 9.8-10.3 with removal efficiency of 99.98% and the good sludge with high settling rate and lower volume was obtained using MgO precipitating agent. Hence the MgO was found to be a good precipitating agent for removal and recovery of chromium from tanning wastewater. The basic chromium sulfate (BCS) recovered at pH 2.8 is suitable for tanning mixed with fresh BCS from the market.

 

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1.   C. P. Ukpaka, S. Nwozi-Anele Adaobi and C. Ukpaka. Development and evaluation of trans amadi groundwater parameters: The integration of finite element techniques. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 306-317.

      Abstract

Mathematical model was developed and evaluated to monitor and predict the groundwater characteristics of Trans-amadi region in Port Harcourt City. In this research three major components were considered such as chloride, total iron and nitrate concentration as well as the polynomial expression on the behavious on the concentration of each component was determined in terms of the equation of the best fit as well as the square root of the curve.  The relationship between nitrate and distance traveled by Nitrate concentration by the model is given as Pc = 0.003x2 - 0.451x + 14.91with coefficient of determination, R² = 0.947, Chloride given as Pc = 0.000x2 - 0.071x + 2.343, R² = 0.951while that of Total Iron is given as Pc = 2E-05x2 - 0.003x + 0.110, R² = 0.930. All these show a strong relationship as established by Polynomial Regression Model. The finite element techniques are found useful in monitoring, predicting and simulating groundwater characteristics of Trans-amadi as well as the prediction on the variation on the parameters of groundwater with variation in time.

 

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