Issue 12

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Wondu Dagnaw and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Preliminary phytochemical screening, isolation and structural elucidation of chloroform leaf extracts of Maesa lanceolata. Chemistry International 3(4), (2017) 251-257

Abstract

The aim of this study was to screen the phytochemical constituents, isolate and elucidate the structure of chloroform extracts from the leaves of Maesa lanceolata. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract of Maesa lanceolata was done following standard procedures and the tests revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides and saponins in the crude extracts. The chloroform extract of the leaves of M. lanceolata led to the isolation of one compound, C1. Structure determination was accomplished by means of spectroscopic methods (IR, 13C and 1H NMR). According to the spectral data (IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and DEPT), probably Myrsenene was identified which is reported for the first time from M. lanceolata.

  

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Reda Mahmoud Abdel Aal, Mihai A. Gitru, Zahraa Mohammed Essam. 2017. Novel synthetized near infrared cyanine dyes as sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells based on nano-TiO2. Chemistry International 3(4) 258-267

Abstract

The shortage of energy resources and increasing demand of alternative resources has become urgent priority for the world. Therefore research in this area is extremely important and promising as in renewable energy. Thus complete solar cells sensitized with cyanine dyes 3-5, having near infrared absorption band optimized for solar cell, are synthesized, characterized and studied in the sun light conversion efficiency. The obtained results should be valid for large studies to reveal the main problems in obtaining sufficient performance of near infrared absorbing dyes.

  

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S. Jafarinejad. Activated sludge combined with powdered activated carbon (PACT process) for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment: A review. Chemistry International 3(4) 268-277.

Abstract

Treatment of petroleum industry wastewater by a conventional process such as activated sludge may be hindered by the presence of recalcitrant organic compounds; therefore, tertiary treatments for wastewater polishing are required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adding to the activated sludge process can lead to a higher quality of treated wastewater, a more stable system and the production of reusable water. In this study, history, principles, mechanisms, and advantages of powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT) process, selection of carbon, typical configuration of a refinery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consisting of the PACT process, and application and/or performance of the PACT technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed. Several laboratory, pilot and full scale studies have demonstrated that PACT technology can be useful for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment. PACT process can generally be applied for the petroleum industry wastewater in those cases where stringent standards require to be met for certain contaminants.

  

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1    S. Fait, S. Fakhi, M. El Mzibri, Z. Faiz, H. Fougrach, W. Badri, A. Smouni, M. Fahr.Distribution of metallic trace elements (ETM) in surface soils around the mediouna discharge (southern of Casablanca).Chemistry International 3(4), (2017) 278-285.

Abstract

The objective of present research was to characterize the surface soils located at 300, 600 and 1000m of an uncontrolled landfill. The work also aims to evaluate the levels and spatial distribution of metallic trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co and As) in these soils. Soil samples were collected in 36 points around the landfill. Results showed that Cd, Pb, Zn are concentrated in the soils rich in clay and carbonates, and in organic matter, located at 300 m from the landfill. The basic pH of all soils enhances the retention of these metals. On the other hand, As present in soils at 300, 600 and 1000 m at concentrations slightly higher than those of referenced soils were apparently mobilized by water from the solid/water interfaces. The other metals Cu, Ni, Co, Cr are present at very lowconcentrations.

  

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1.   Okenwa U. Igwe and Chisom Friday. Volatile constituents of hydrocolloids isolated from Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum seeds. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 286-291.

Abstract

The seed endosperms of Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum are known materials for soup thickening in Southeast and some other parts of Nigeria. The hydrocolloids responsible for the thickening effect were isolated from the seed endosperms and characterised using GC-MC technique. The volatile fraction of A. africana seed hydrocolloids showed the presence of seventeen constituents consisting of aromatic (0.80 %), hydrocarbons (7.67 %), phenolic (0.39 %), esters (10.19 %), fatty acids (36.35 %), alcohols (42.24 %) and steroid (2.36 %). On the other hand, twenty two compounds were identified in the seed hydrocolloids of D. microcarpum. They consist of hydrocarbons (20.32 %), aromatics (2.14 %), aldehyde (0.49 %), phenolic (0.37 %), fatty acids (67.80 %), esters (5.09 %) and alcohol (3.80 %). This investigation reveals that the two hydrocolloids contain appreciable amount of volatile phytochemicals that could provide certain physiological benefits to the body. Hydrocolloids from D. microcarpum contain more volatile phytochemicals than that of A. africana.

  

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1.     Fenta Minas, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi and Seyoum Leta. Chemical precipitation method for chromium removal and its recovery from tannery wastewater in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 291-305.

Abstract

Most tanneries in Ethiopia (90%) do not treat and very few (10%) partially treat their effluent before discharging it into the receiving water bodies. The untreated tannery effluent causes tremendous pollution of water resources in the country, especially due to its high organic loading and chromium content. Chromium(III) salts are the most widely used chemicals for tanning processes, but only about 60-70% of total chromium salts reacts with the hides and about 30-40% of the chromium remain in the solids and liquid wastes (especially spent tanning solutions). Therefore, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of these wastewaters is necessary for environmental protection and economic reasons. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative process for removing and recovering trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via chemical precipitation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and magnesium oxide (MgO). The effects of pH, stirring time, settling rate and sludge volume were studied in batch experiments. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Cr concentration. The results showed that removal efficiencies of the precipitating agents NaOH (99.97%), Ca(OH)2 (99.97%) and MgO ( 99.98%) at optimum pH values were not significantly different. However, there was a significant difference in sludge volume of NaOH (590 mL), Ca(OH)2 (412 mL) and MgO (85 mL). The optimum pH of 9.8-10.3 with removal efficiency of 99.98% and the good sludge with high settling rate and lower volume was obtained using MgO precipitating agent. Hence the MgO was found to be a good precipitating agent for removal and recovery of chromium from tanning wastewater. The basic chromium sulfate (BCS) recovered at pH 2.8 is suitable for tanning mixed with fresh BCS from the market.

 

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1.      C. P. Ukpaka, S. Nwozi-Anele Adaobi and C. Ukpaka. Development and evaluation of trans amadi groundwater parameters: The integration of finite element techniques. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 306-313.

      Abstract

Mathematical model was developed and evaluated to monitor and predict the groundwater characteristics of Trans-amadi region in Port Harcourt City. In this research three major components were considered such as chloride, total iron and nitrate concentration as well as the polynomial expression on the behavious on the concentration of each component was determined in terms of the equation of the best fit as well as the square root of the curve.  The relationship between nitrate and distance traveled by Nitrate concentration by the model is given as Pc = 0.003x2 - 0.451x + 14.91with coefficient of determination, R² = 0.947, Chloride given as Pc = 0.000x2 - 0.071x + 2.343, R² = 0.951while that of Total Iron is given as Pc = 2E-05x2 - 0.003x + 0.110, R² = 0.930. All these show a strong relationship as established by Polynomial Regression Model. The finite element techniques are found useful in monitoring, predicting and simulating groundwater characteristics of Trans-amadi as well as the prediction on the variation on the parameters of groundwater with variation in time.

 

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Kaouthar Djehaf,  Amel Zahira Bouyakoub,  Rachid Ouhib, Hanane Benmansour, Ali Bentouaf, Amina Mahdad, Noureddine Moulay, Djillali Bensaid, Mohammed Ameri. Textile wastewater in Tlemcen (Western Algeria): Impact, Treatment by combined process. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 314-318.

 

      Abstract

Algerian water resources are scarce, and unequally distributed. The region is facing severe water shortage problems due to climate conditions, uneven precipitations, and the long periods of drought. Moreover, the demand for water from the urban population, industry, and especially agriculture is rapidly increasing. Water management represents an economic and ecological challenge to cope with this demand, conserve the water resources and reduce the environmental pollution. The present paper reviews the textile wastewater treatment and feasibility of reuse. The treatment was performed using a combined process; Adsorption on Bentonite (B) followed by electroflotation (EF). The effects of B concentration, pH, contact time and current density, were investigated under optimal conditions for maximal dye elimination. Water reuse activity, the potentials, risks and issued associated with reclaimed water reuse are also reviewed. The results were well fitted by both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and show that the effluent treated by this combined method contained essentially no turbidity, color or COD 99, 01%, 99, 49% and 99, 8% are the removal rates obtained, respectively. The treated effluent quality satisfied the requirement of water discharges standards. Yet, integration of many factors is needed to reuse this water.

 

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K. Benahmed Daij, S. Bellebia, Z. Bengharez. Comparative Experimental Study on the COD Removal in Aqueous Solutions of Pesticides by the Electrocoagulation Process using Monopolar Iron Electrodes. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 319-327.

      Abstract

The aim of this work is a comparative experimental study on the COD removal in aqueous solutions of the following pesticides, Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl48EC, Fenitrothion 3% and Acetamiprid20% SP by electrocoagulation process. The effect of various parameters of electrocoagulation on removal efficiency was studied and optimized. The COD removal using nonpolar iron electrodes was affected by current density, contact time, initial pH and initial concentration of pesticides. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as contact time (4, 5 and 10 min), for a maximum abatement of 100 mg/L pesticide listed above respectively. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development process to remove significant concentrations of COD using moderate iron consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment. Moreover, our results show that the pesticide Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl was removal quickly with a maximum rate of 87% at contact time of 4 min.

 

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Abdulmumeen A. Hamid, Stephen O. Oguntoye, Abdulrahaman Mukadam, Abdulgafar O. Zubair, Emmanuel O. Fagbohun, Joshua Adeyemo, Muinat A. Aliyu, Joseph B. Ojo, Bashir Olaniyi. Chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the aerial parts of Coccinia barteri. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 328-342.

      Abstract

Phytochemical analysis of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Coccinia barteri was carried out. These extracts exhibited satisfactory inhibitory activities against bacteria and fungi strains, which include; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Methanol extract of C. barteri possesses antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH free radical with IC50 of 187.56 µg/mL, using DPPH antioxidant assay. GC-MS analysis of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the plant principally revealed the presence of phytol, ethyl hexadecanoate and clionasterol with their corresponding percentage abundance of 57.75%, 18.33% and 9.79%.

 

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A. Ayach, S. Fakhi1, Z. Faiz, A. Bouih, O. Ait malek, A. Benkdad, M. Benmansour, A. Laissaoui, M. Adjour, Y. Elbatal, I. Vioque, G. Manjon. On adsorption of Methylene Blue on bituminous schists from Tarfaya-Boujdour. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 343-352.

      Abstract

In this work, the reactivity of the surface of bituminous schists has been studied using a cation adsorbent, so-called Methylene Blue (MB). This bituminous schist is a calcareous clay rock that contains some amounts of organic matter. The samples were collected from an outcrop of Lamsied (Laâyoune), zone around Tarfaya-Boujdour. Once the granulometry of samples was well determined, the rocks were characterized by X-ray diffraction and they were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. Some parameters were considered relevant on the adsorption of MB by surface rock and they have been studied. One of these parameters is the adsorbed molecules-adsorbent contact time. This is the contact between a starting concentration of MB and a certain mass of gross rock. The analysis of results has shown that adsorption of MB can be well modelled by the Langmuir isotherm and also that a rapid kinetic (<100 min for L-type) can be fitted by a second-order equation model. The gross rock takes 84 % of the amount of MB in aqueous phase at a time less than 1min, using a rock mass of 0.1 g.

 

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J. C. Nnaji, O. J. Kingsely and B. I. Ugwu. Assessment of Garcinia kola seed as a natural material for water treatment. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 353-358.

      Abstract

The coagulation and antimicrobial efficiency of Garcinia kola at different concentrations on turbid surface water samples collected from Ogbor Hill River in Aba was studied. Phytochemical analysis showed alkaloid content of 2.11 ± 0.04 % while saponin, flavonoid and tannin contents were 0.34 ± 0.04 %, 2.16 ± 0.03 % and 0.14 ± 0.02 % respectively. Phenol content was 1.65 ± 0.01 %. The physicochemical and microbial analysis indicated that the water sample had temperature of 30.5 ± 0.10, pH of 7.4 ± 0.20, total dissolved solids of 161.54 ± 1.13 mg/L, turbidity of 31.64 ± 0.08 NTU, electrical conductivity of 221.4 ± 0.35 μS/cm, biochemical oxygen demand of 5.87 ± 0.03 mg/L, chloride content of 0.28 ± 0.02 mg/L, nitrate content of 248.6 ± 0.27 mg/L, nitrite content of 1.86 ± 0.04 mg/L, 12.00 ± 1.00 MPN/ml of Total Coliform, (7.67 ± 1.00) x102 CFU/ml of E. coli, (10.33 ± 1.15) x102 CFU/ml of faecal streptococcus, (15.67 ± 2.52) x102 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus and too numerous to count (TNTC) for Total Heterotrophic bacteria. However, microbial reduction after treatment with Garcinia kola seed extract at different concentrations ranged from 41.67 – 75.00 % for Total coliform, 34.81 – 73.92 % for E.coli, 12.87-70.96 % for Faecal streptococcus, 36.18 – 68.09 % for Staphylococcus aureus and 45.30 – 65.81 % for total heterotrophic bacteria.Garcina kola seed is non-toxic and does not significantly affect the pH and conductivity of the treated water.

 

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Abera Gure, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi, and Taddese Wondimu Godeto. Metals in green coffee beans from major coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 359-369.

      Abstract

The metal contents of green coffee beans cultivated in major coffee growing zones of Ethiopia (Wollega, Sidamo, Harar, Bench Maji and Kafa) have been determined in representative samples of the five coffee varieties collected from Coffee Quality Inspection and Liquoring Center located in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Different sample preparation procedures were tested by varying reagent volumes and types, digestion time, digestion temperature and amount of the sample to decompose the green coffee beans and solubilize the metals. The optimal procedure required 4 h to completely digest 0.5 g of green coffee beans with 5 mL HNO3 (70%) and 1.5 mL HClO4 (70%) at 270 oC. Concentrations of metals (Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometer employing a four point external calibration curve. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by analyzing sample digests spiked with standard solutions. Recoveries of the spiked samples varied from 90 to 110% in green coffee beans. The metals levels observed in green coffee beans are comparable to literature reports. Cd was not detected in any of the five samples while Pb was detected at trace level in only one of the five samples. This indicated that the Ethiopian green coffee beans are free from the toxic metals. The Pearson correlation coefficients indicated strong to medium positive or negative correlation among the metals in the green coffee beans. The analysis of variance results at 95% confidence level suggested that there were significant difference in the concentrations of all the metals except K between the five sampling areas. Thus, this study has revealed variation of metal composition of green coffee beans with the geographical origin of the coffee verities.

 

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A. K. Khalafallah and M. A. Ahmed. A Novel and efficient method for the synthesis of 6-amino-pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones derivatives, pyrido [2,3-d] pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones derivatives and their glycosides as a new antimetabolites agents. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 370-377.

      Abstract

Simple condensation reaction of 6-amino-pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones with aromatic aldhydes afforded 6-(arylidene-amino)-pyrimidine-2-(1H)-thiones derivatives, that react with ¥-nitrostyrene to give pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine-2-(1H)-thiones derivatives , the latter compounds served as key intermediate for the synthesis of a new class of pyrimidine-S-glycosides by the reaction with α-bromoglucose tetracetate. Deacetylation of glycoside have been achieved The structure of the compounds were established and confirmed on the basis of their elemental analysis and  spectral data.

 

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     R. Tijar, M. Bourjila, A. EL Guerdaoui, B. El Merbouh, R. Drissi El Bouzaidi and A. El Gridani. Determination of preferred conformations of  benzenetricarboxylic acids by means of genetic algorithm MNC  for multi-modal search. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 378-388.

      Abstract

The structures of benzenetricarboxylic acids: hemimellitic, trimellitic and trimesic have been investigated using genetic algorithm MNC. Calculated structures and heats of formation, using semi-empiric method AM1, are reported for all the lower-energy conformers of each species. In effect, hemimellitic acid and  trimellitic in which the carboxyl groups are linked to the benzene ring in adjacent (ortho) positions assume a non-planar geometry, while trimesic acid which  having no carboxylic groups in the ortho-position adopted  a planar  structure in the  two  most stable  conformations.

 

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H.A. Latif and E.A. Elrady. Simple synthesis of some new heterocyclic derivatives incorporation coumarin -2-one moiety. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 389-395.

      Abstract

3-(1-ethoxy-3-oxo-3-phenylpropyle-1-enyl)-2H-coumarin-2-one (2), had been synthesized and reacted with some selected reagents such as hydrazine hydrate, urea, cyanoacetamide, cyanoacetohydrazide, orthophenylene diamine, ortho-aminophenol and 5-aminotriazole in ethanol piperidine solution to afford new multisubtituted 3-(pyrazol, pyrimidine, pyridine, diazepine, oxazepin, triazol)-2H- coumarin-2-one derivatives.

 

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C. P. Ukpaka and E. N. Wami. Degradation biokinetics of used and fresh lube oils in contaminated soil environment. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 396-409.

 

      Abstract

In order to solve the problems of the soil environment caused by the discharge of petroleum products especially oils used for lubrication, investigations were carried out to assess the degradation of fresh and used lube oil in soil environment using bacteria degraders present in the soil. This was done by introducing some quantities of the pollutant (fresh and used lubricating oils) into some soil samples obtained from the environment. The degradation pattern was studied by estimating the level of the microbial growth using culture method and the phenol content. This was done before the introduction of the pollutant and at two weekly intervals for 42days. Results show that the phenol content, microbial and micro species present in the soil rapidly increased to maximum and then declined. The specific rate, maximum specific rate and equilibrium constants were determined using Line-Weaver Burk Plots. Results obtained show that the bacteria which degraded the fresh and used lube oil were inhibited by the presence of phenol which was informed during the biodegradation reaction. Empirical equation for microbial growth rate using the data from the experiment was obtained. The degradation of the fresh lube oil occurred faster than the used lube oil. The equation is useful in monitoring and predicting the performance of microorganisms in bioreactor and predicting the performance of microorganisms in bioreactor containing used or fresh lube oil.

 

 

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O. U. Igwe, U. C. Obiukwu. GC/MS Characterization of volatile components of hydrocolloids from Irvingia gabonensis and Mucuna sloanei Seeds. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 410-415.

      Abstract

Irvingia gabonensis and Mucuna sloanei seeds are among the known soup thickeners used in the preparation of different kinds of soups and local delicacies in Southeast Nigeria. The thickening substances which are hydrocolloids have been isolated and partially characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Eighteen constituents were identified in I. gabonensis comprising aromatic (0.76 %), hydrocarbons (7.19 %), ketones (1.53 %), carboxylic/fatty acids (79.47 %) and esters (11.04 %). Twenty-one constituents were identified in M. sloanei comprising hydrocarbons (22.58 %), esters (19.42 %), fatty acids (45.64 %), amide (5.77 %), aldehyde (4.69 %) and ketones (1.89 %). This research reveals that the seed hydrocolloids of M. sloanei contain more volatile phytochemicals than that of I. gabonensis.

 

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      Abstract

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