Issue 5

Table of Contents , Vol 2, Issue 1

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Mohammad Asif. 2016. A review on recent advances and potential pharmacological activities of versatile chalchone molecule. Chemistry International 2(1) 1-18.

Abstract

Chalchone is an aromatic ketone and precursors of open chain flavonoids and isoflavonoids present in edible plants and their derivatives have attracted attention due to many potential pharmacological activities. Chalchone are also known as benzalacetophenone and phenyl styryl ketone. Modifications in their structure have offered diverse pharmacological activities that have proven useful for the development of new medicinal agents having improved potency and lesser toxicity. They are also the intermediates in the Auwer's synthesis of flavanoids and in the biosynthesis of flavanoids. Chalchone can be synthesized by various method but the two main methods are Aldol condensation method and Claisen Schmidt method. This review provides an overview of the pharmacological activities of natural and synthetic chalchone derivatives.

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C. P.  Ukpaka. Development of model for bioremediation of crude oil using moringa extract. Chemistry International 2(1) (2016) 19-28.

Abstract

Crude oil spillage on land is a major undeniable challenge we face in the Niger Delta, this is as a result of the oil exploration and exploitation activity done by the big oil multinationals and also those done by indigenous private firms, the petroleum could find its way to the soil via occurrences including pipeline leakages and explosions, corrosion of underground pipes transporting crude oil and petroleum product and also it could come purely in form of untreated industrial waste.  As a result of the foregoing research work was conducted using Moringa leave extract, and the component of interest included phosphates, potassium and nitrogen which are the major stimulators of bioremediation, were found to be abundant in the Moringa Oleifera leave extract. The application of Moringa leave extract was found to be useful in the enhancing of crude oil polluted lands, and by so doing it facilitates the rehabilitation of the contaminated soil as well as reinstating the soil constituents for agricultural purposes. This is a new research investigation which show high efficiency in bioremediation program the maximum specific rate and the rate constants as well as they overall order of the bioremediation reaction were determined, using the principle of the rate laws as well as they Monod’s equation from which the line waver burke plot was obtained. Therefore the experiment as well as the theoretical model developed can be used to monitor, predict and simulate the rate of degradation of hydrocarbons present in a polluted soil undergoing bioremediation under the influence of Moringa Oleifera leave extract.

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H. A. Shindy. 2016.Basics in Colors, Dyes and Pigments Chemistry: A Review. Chemistry International 2(1) 29-36.

Abstract

More than one hundred multi choice problems and their solutions in colors, dyes and pigments chemistryare represented in this paper review. Reviewing the basic, fundamental principles and/or the knowledge of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry via multi choice problems and their solutions is an interesting type of reviewing and can be considered as a novel and/or patent type of reviewing which is lacking in literature. This paper review is informative and acts as a mordant and/or stabilizer for the basic information, fundamental understanding, principles and/or knowledge in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry, and it may be very interesting to read by a large community of dyers and colorists, and also by professors and teachers in this field. It is valuable both for getting an overview in the field of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry and as a mine of information for the dyestuff chemists. In addition, this paper review can be published and/or printed as a thesis and/or note book teaching and lectures for undergraduate and graduate students of chemistry departments and/or chemistry institutions at any university. Besides, this paper review can be used and/or will be most valuable in domestic and/or international scientific and/or chemistry competitions, in organic chemistry as general and particularly in the field of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry.

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Adesola Babarinde and Gloria Ogonna Onyiaocha. 2016. Equilibrium sorption of divalent metal ions onto groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell: kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics. Chemistry International 2(1) 37-46.

Abstract

The equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics of the biosorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) onto groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) shell were investigated under various physicochemical parameters. Optimisation studies were carried out using batch biosorption studies. The extent of the metal ion biosorption increased with increase in solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, dosage of biosorbent and contact time but decreased with the temperature of the system. The biosorption of each of the metal ions was found to be pH-dependent. Kinetic study showed that the metal ions biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The sorption of each metal ion was analysed with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models, in each case, the equilibrium data were better represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamically, parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (∆G˚), standard enthalpy (∆H˚), standard entropy (∆S˚) and the activation energy (A) were calculated. The biosorption of each metal ion was spontaneous and the order of spontaneity of the biosorption process being Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Pb(II).Similarly, change in entropy was observed for each and the order of disorder is Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Pb(II).

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