Issue 6

Table of Contents , Vol 2, Issue 2

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R. Gangadhara and N. B. L. Prasad. 2016. Studies on optimization of transesterification of certain oils to produce biodiesel. Chemistry International 2(2) 59-69.

Abstract

The oil seed production in the country presently meets only 60-70% of its total edible oil requirements and the rest is met through imports. India also has a potential of collecting 5 million tons of tree-borne oilseeds (TBO) of which only one million tons are being collected presently. The consumption of edible oil is very high in the country and still the indigenous production does not meet the demand and considerable amount of edible oil is imported and it is therefore, not advisable to divert these sources for biodiesel production. On the other hand, the non-edible oil resources can be a solution for biodiesel production. Non- edible oil from the plant seeds is the most promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine because it is renewable, environment friendly, non-toxic, biodegradable has no sulphur and aromatics, has favourable combustion value and higher cetane number. Extensive work has been done on the transesterification of non-edible oils; however, no significant work has been done on the optimization of transesterification process, oil characterization and fuel analysis of most of the non-edible seed oils. In the present work, optimization of transesterification process and analysis of biodiesel from non-edible oil was done; based on optimized protocol for biodiesel production from non-edible oilseeds of Neem and Pongamia  converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) through base catalyzed transesterification using an optimum ratio of 1:6 (Oil : Methanol) at 60oC. Biodiesel from these sources was analyzed for qualitative and quantitative characterization by using, GC-MS and FT-IR techniques. Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of biodiesel, it is concluded that the biodiesel from these species can be feasible, cost effective and environment friendly.

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R. Drissi El Bouzaidi and A. El Gridani. 2016. Study of the vibronic coupling in the ground state of Methylthio radical. Chemistry International 2(2) 70-79

Abstract

Using a methodology based on the crude adiabatic approximation, we study the complete linear and quadratic vibronic coupling in the ground state of SCH3 radical. In order to build the representation of the hamiltonian, we evaluated 30 integrals intervening in the formulation of the vibronic coupling. Diagonalization of this representation gives the vibronic levels. For the lowest vibronic states, the implied modes are Q1 (symmetric C-S stretching) and Q4 (CH3 rocking). Energy gaps A1-A2 and A2-ε resulting  from the splitting  due to the Jahn-Teller coupling E U e = A1 + A2+ ε are evaluated to 250 and 169 cm-1, respectively. Essential coupling parameters are surrounded to simplify the study of highly vibronic states. 

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Ukpaka Chukwuemeka Peter and Ukpaka Chinedu. 2016. Model prediction for constant area, variable pressure drop in orifice plate characteristics in flow system. Chemistry International 2(2) 80-88

Abstract

The effect of density, pressure drop, viscosity and orifice area on the characteristics of fluid flow was examined in this paper. Also studied was the effect on the control pressure change of the constant area variable pressure drop meter as a proportional derivative control. The mathematical model developed to monitor and predict the control of the system is given as P-Po = 7.8/t – 0.06 + Kc +Kd. The change in control pressure decreases with increase in proportional/derivative gain (Kc, Kd) as well as increase in time. The Bernoulli’s principle was applied in describing the design principle, stability analysis and development of mathematic model of a pressure-based flow meter with a constant area, variable pressure drop; using an orifice plate with different fluid flowing through it. The developed formula relates pressure drop with the flow rate of a given fluid passing through the orifice. The formula obtained is then simulated using different fluids. In order to control the flow rate, of these fluid flowing through the model developed was related to a Proportional Derivative control (PD). Thereby getting knowledge on how the PD controller performs with respect to different fluids, with change in pressure, density and area of the pipe/orifice was presented in this paper. Finally information and results on the simulation and how the PD controller functional parameters of proportional gain and derivative gain influence the control system was examined in this research.

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Adesola Babarinde, Kemi Ogundipe,  Kikelomo Tobi Sangosanya, Babatunde Damilare Akintola and Aanu-Oluwa Elizabeth Hassan. 2016. Comparative study on the biosorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) using Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus): Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamics. Chemistry International 2(2) 89-102

Abstract

A comparative study on the biosorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) using Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) was investigated under various physicochemical parameters. Optimisation studies were carried out using batch biosorption studies. The biosorption of each of the metal ions was found to be pH-dependent. Kinetic study showed that each biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The sorption of each metal ion was analysed with Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models, in each case, the equilibrium data were best represented by Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibbs free energy (∆G˚), standard enthalpy (∆H˚), standard entropy (∆S˚) and the activation energy (A) were calculated. The biosorption of each metal ion was spontaneous and the order of spontaneity of the biosorption process being Zn(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II).Similarly, the change in entropy shows that the order of disorder is Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Pb(II). In each case, the value of activation energy obtained shows that each process is a diffusion-controlled adsorption process.

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S. A Amadi and C. P. Ukpaka. 2016. Role of molecular diffusion in the recovery of water flood residual oil. Chemistry International 2(2) 103-113

Abstract

Traditionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) injection has been considered an inefficient method for enhancing oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. Obviously, it would be useful to experimentally investigate the efficiency of waterflooding naturally fractured reservoirs followed by carbon dioxide (CO2) injection. This issue was investigated by performing water imbibition followed by CO2 gravity drainage experiments on artificially fractured cores at reservoir conditions. The experiments were designed to illustrate the actual process of waterflooding and CO2 gravity drainage in a naturally fractured reservoir in the Brass Area, Bayelsa. The results demonstrate that CO2 gravity drainage could significantly increase oil recovery after a waterflood. During the experiments, the effects of different parameters such as permeability, initial water saturation and injection scheme was also examined. It was found that the efficiency of the CO2 gravity drainage decrease as the rock permeability decreases and the initial water saturation increases. Cyclic CO2 injection helped to improve oil recovery during the CO2 gravity drainage process which alters the water imbibition. Oil samples produced in the experiment were analyzed using gas chromatography to determine the mechanism of CO2-improved oil production from tight matrix blocks. The results show that lighter components are extracted and produced early in the test. The results of these experiments validate the premises that CO2 could be used to recover oil from a tight and unconfined matrix efficiently.

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 Matthew Obaineh Ojezele, Earnest Oghenesuvwe Erhirhie and Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye. 2016. Effects of Viscum album (mistletoe) from three host plants (cocoa, kola and coffee) on semen quality of wistar albino rats. Chemistry International 2(1) 109b-113b

Abstract

Toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants is useful to know their safety profile. Male infertility arising from administration of drugs of plant origin is a major health concern. In the management of chronic health issues, the adverse effects of these agents are often down-played in favour of the beneficial medicinal values. This encourages repeated administration or consumption of part or whole plant products. Viscum album (mistletoe) is a popular medicinal plants used in the treatment of various chronic diseases. However, there is paucity of research on the effect of mistletoe from different host plants on male fertility. The study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Viscum album obtained from three host plants (Cocoa, Kola and Coffee) on semen parameters of Wistar rats.Animals were divided into four groups Control, Cocoa, Kola and Coffee respectively. Group 1 served as control (received distilled water, 10 ml/kg), groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 had four sub-groups each. Each sub-group received 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg/kg doses of extract respectively daily for 24 days. Five animals were allotted to each group (control) and sub-group (extracts).Administration of 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 mg/kg doses of extract of Viscum album obtained from three host plants (Cocoa, Kola and Coffee) caused dose-dependent significant (P<0.05, 0.01) decrease in semen quality (count, motility, morphology, concentration and viability) respectively. However, semen volume was not significantly altered (P>0.05). The results suggest that Viscum album obtained from the three host plants adversely affected sperm parameters in male wistar rats. Thus, people who consume the plant extracts should be careful and medical practitioners who prescribe Viscum album in the management of chronic diseases should be cautious. 

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