Issue 7

Table of Contents , Vol 2, Issue 3

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H. A. Shindy, A. K. Khalafalla, M. M. Goma and A. H. Eed. 2016. Synthesis, photosensitization and antimicrobial activity evaluation of some novel Merocyanine dyes. Chemistry International 2(3) 114-120

Abstract

Novel acyclic and cyclic merocyanine dyes derived from the nucleu of furo [(3,2-d) pyrazole; ()imidazole]were prepared. The electronic visible absorption spectra of all the synthesized new cyanine dyes were examined in 95% ethanol solution to evaluate their photosensitization properties. Antibacterial and antifungal activities for some selected dyes were tested against various bacterial and fungal strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) to evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Structural identification was carried out via elemental analysis, visible spectra, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic data.

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Youxuan Zhao, Dunqing Wang, Xinmin Li, Yuguo Liu. 2016. Determination of rutin, chlorogenic acid and quercetin in solidaginis by large volume sample stacking with polarity switching and acid barrage stacking. Chemistry International 2(3) 121-127

Abstract

The sensitivity of capillary electrophoretic separation of rutin, chlorogenic acid and quercetin was enhanced by combination use of large volume sample stacking with polarity switching (LVSSPS) and acid barrage stacking (ABS). Separating conditions, including the background electrolye pH and concentration, sample injection and acid barrage were optimized. The optimum conditions were: a background electrolyte of 30 mM Na2B2O7 of pH 9.25, hydrodynamic injection of the sample (60s, 5 psi), then applied voltage of -25 kV, and then hydrodynamic injecting of 0.15 mol/L HAc (18 s, 0.5 psi), and at last separation with 25 kV. Under these conditions, the three analytes could be separated with a sample-to-sample time of 14 min and detection limits from 9.0 to 12.5 ng/mL.  When compared to a conventional hydrodynamic injection, the sensitivity was enhanced between 333 to 506 times and the method is 3.6-5.3 times more sensitive than LVSSPS. The applicability of the developed method was demonstrated by the detection of the analytes in aqueous extract of Solidaginis.

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Ukpaka, C.P. 2016. Predictive model on the effect of restrictor on transfer function parameters on pneumatic control system. Chemistry International 2(3) 128-135

Abstract

Mathematical model was developed to monitor and predict the influence of restrictor or the characteristics of the functional parameters of the transfer function for pneumatic control system. The force acting from bellow is directly proportional to the effective cross-sectional area of the base which yielded extension of the bellow in both horizontal and vertical as well as its extension rate is dependent on the influence of the restrictor. The pneumatic controller represents the main force control operator in many industrial applications, where it’s static and dynamic characteristics play an important role in the overall behavior of the control system, the total differential expression obtained in terms of restrictor pressure change per unit change in time was presented. The general solution equation established was resolved using the mathematical concept of laplace transformation as well as application of partial fraction which yields

PR(t)     =   

The effect of the restrictor on the characteristics of the pressure was monitored, predicted and simulated using the MATLAB program approach. Result obtained reveals increase in restrictor pressure with increase in time. Restrictor pressure is influence by the capacitance, input pressure of bellow characteristics as well as other functional parameters.

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1.    C. P. Ukpaka and C. Ukpaka. Characteristics of groundwater in Port-Harcourt local Government area. Chemistry International 2(3) (2016) 136-144.

 

Abstract

The study was carried out in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, during the dry season. The quality of groundwater in the area was studied using existing deep water well (borehole) constructed with steel casing and screens. Also shallow wells (hand dug) were investigated. Water samples from the groundwater were collected directly from the wells for a period of five weeks and analyzed. The results in all cases showed that pH was acidic (less than 6.5) as against the WHO tolerance limits of 6.5 – 8.5. Iron appears to be relatively higher (0.38mg/l) in borehole groundwater at station 1, Bundu as against WHO – specified maximum value of 0.3 mg/l. Iron is leached by the acidic and corrosive ground waters (pH less than 6) from the steel well-structured and iron pipe network, laterized soil cover that are in vertical continuity with the aquifer and iron rich sediments, particularly iron coated and stained sand and pebble grain. Neither odour nor taste was noticed in all the groundwater sampled. Also there were no fecal coliform and other coliform organisms present during bacteriological analyses. Water treatment involving demineralization (acid medium removal) and iron removal are necessary in order to improve the quality of ground waters under study.

 

M. Bourjila, B. El Merbouh, R. Tijar, A. EL Guerdaoui, R. Drissi  El Bouzaidi, A. El Gridani and M. EL Mouhtadi. 2016. Ployalanine gas phase acidities determination and conformational space analysis by genetic algorithm assessment. Chemistry International 2(3) 145-157

Abstract

The genetic algorithm, based on the Multi-Niche Crowding (MNC) method, coupled with the semi-empirical AM1 method is used to analyze the potential energy surface of some polypeptides containing cysteine. Calculating the formation energies of these systems in both neutral and deprotonated states, we deducted their enthalpy of deprotonation (ΔHacid) and we identified the types of rearrangement of these atoms when isolated. Deprotonation occurs at the level of the alone acid site characterizing these peptides namely the thiol. The values obtained for the deprotonation enthalpies of polypeptides AlaCysNH2, Ala2CysNH2, Ala3CysNH2, Ala4CysNH2, CysAlaNH2 and CysAla2NH2 are in the order of 331.3 kcal/mol, 322.9 kcal/mol, 313.8 kcal/mol, 312.9 kcal/mol, 325.1 kcal/mol and 317.3 kcal/mol, respectively. The location of global and local minima of these polypeptides shows that they are rearranged in two forms of secondary structures namely helical and globular forms. The obtained results are in good agreement with the experimental ones, on the one hand, and with those from other methods in the theoretical calculation, on the other hand. Therefore, the N-cysteine is more acidic than their homologous C-Cysteine and for this series of plolyalanines, the acidity in the gas phase increased with the peptide chain length.

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V. R. Remya, Deepak Patil, V. K. Abitha, Ajay V. Rane and Raghvendra K. Mishra. 2016. Biobased materials for polyurethane dispersions. Chemistry International 2(3) 158-167

Abstract

Nowadays, most of the commercially available resins are synthesized from petroleum based stocks. Besides exhibiting excellent properties, synthetic resins are coming under increasing restrictions due to tightening environmental exposure regulations, high depletion rates and exponential rising prices of petrochemical stocks etc. So,considering an increasing ecological and economical issue in the new generation coating industries, the maximum utilization of naturally available resources for polymer/resin synthesis can be an obvious option. These renewable resources can be utilized for number of polymerization reactions due to their reactive functionalities such as hydroxyl groups, carboxyl groups, unsaturation, reactive phenolic structures etc. Therefore, a wide variety of resins can be synthesized from renewable resources, some of them being, alkyd, polyesters, phenolic resins, epoxy resins, polyurethanes, acrylics, vinyl, etc. The present paper discussed the potential of naturally available resources as an environment friendly alternative for petroleum based raw materials as far as coating industries are concerned.

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    Banji Adaramola, Adebayo Onigbinde and Oluwatosin Shokunbi. 2016. Physiochemical properties and antioxidant potential of Persea Americana seed oil. Chemistry International 2(3) 168-175

Abstract

Oil extracted from Persea Americana seed was assayed for its physiochemical properties and antioxidant potential using various standard methods. The oil content of the seed was found to be < 10%. Brownish-red color oil was liquid at room temperature, with specific gravity of 0.91±0.02 g/mL. Other physiochemical parameters determined were; acid value (4.51±0.08 mgKOH/g), %FFA (2.26±0.08), peroxide value (2.40±0.57 mgO2/Kg), ester value (31.26±0.03 mgKOH/g), saponification value (35.76±0.07 mgKOH/g) and iodine value (23.5±0.07). The results of the antioxidant activities of the seed oil showed that the flavonoid content (80.00±1.41 mgQE/g) was ~10 folds higher than the phenolic content (8.27±0.06 mgGAE/g). The DPPH radical scavenging value was found to be 51.54±0.25% with an IC50 value of 4.68±0.02 mg/mL and reducing power with an average absorbance of 0.85±0.01 and an IC50 value of 0.001±0.02 mg/mL. Gallic acid showed better antioxidant activities than the oil studied. The results obtained in this study showed that Persea Americana seed oil has nutritional, industrial as well as medicinal potentials.

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