Issue 8

Table of Contents , Vol 2, Issue 4

 


H. A. Ogoni, C. P. Ukpaka and V. O. Izionworu. 2016. Evaluation of substrate uptake by microbial film in a gel-like medium. Chemistry International 2(4) 176-188

Abstract

Mathematical model was developed to demonstrates the predominantly reaction controlled region and diffusion limited region for Æp > 3 with high or large diffusion in this case, but when Æp = 0.3 the chemical reaction and diffusion onset occurred. The model developed illustrates the relationship between KC* and N/Nmax for various incremental steps of K2 L. The result obtained reveals that increase in K3C* resulted to an increase in N/ Nmax until an optimum value of N/Nmax was achieved after then the values remain constant with incremental value on K3C*. The Kinetics of substrate is dependent of K3C* as well as K2L values of the system, which in overall influence the substrate uptake by microbial film in gel- like medium. 

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Anjani Solankeeand Riki Tailor. 2016. An efficient synthesis of some new chalcone, acetyl pyrazoline and amino pyrimidine bearing 1,3,5-triazine nucleus as potential antimicrobial and antitubercular agent. Chemistry International 2(4) 189-200

Abstract

In an attempt to find a new class of antimicrobial and antitubercular agent, a new series of chalcone, acetyl pyrazoline and amino pyrimidine bearing 1,3,5- triazine nucleus were synthesized  with appropriate chemical reagent. Chalcones (D1-D5) were synthesized by the classical Claisen-Schmidt condensation of substituted ketone (C) with variously substituted aldehydes via conventional method. Now treatment of chalconeswith hydrazine hydrate/glacial acetic acid and guanidine hydrochloride/Alkali afforded the corresponding acetyl pyrazoline (E1-E5) and amino pyrimidine (F1-F5) derivatives respectively. The chemical structures of all newly synthesized compounds were established on the basis of their FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC-MS as well as elemental analysis. All the newly design compounds were assayed for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected pathogens by the Broth dilution method and in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using Lowenstein-Jensen MIC method. Most of the compounds showed appreciable antimicrobial activity against the all tested strains. Among the synthesized compounds D1, D2, D3, E1, E3, E4, F3 and F4 exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity and said to be the most proficient members of the series. Compound D5 and F5 exhibited promising antitubercular activity. 

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R. Tijar, B. El Merbouh, M. Bourjila, A. EL Guerdaoui, R.  Drissi  El Bouzaidi, A. El Gridani and M. EL Mouhtadi. 2016. Conformational space analysis of neutral and deprotonated forms of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and phthalic acid using a genetic algorithm. Chemistry International 2(4) 201-221

Abstract

In this paper we present a detailed conformational study of three aromatic systems constituting the basic units of humic acids namely benzoic acid, salicylic acid and phthalic acid. The genetic algorithm, based on the multi-niche crowding (MNC) method, coupled with the semi-empirical AM1 method is used to analyze the potential energy surface (PES) of these systems. This algorithm, implemented in the MOPAC program and piloted by scripts, provides better detection of global and local minima in a reasonable time. The results obtained are comparable with those of previous studies. Three factors can be cited to justify the stability of conformations i.e. effects of conjugation, steric interactions and intramolecular hydrogen bonds.
Abstract

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H. A. Shindy, M. M. Goma and N. A.  Harb. 2016. Novel carbocyanine and bis carbocyanine dyes: synthesis, visible spectra studies, solvatochromism and halochromism. Chemistry International 2(4) 222-231

Abstract

Novel carbocyanine dyes (trimethine cyanine dyes) and bis carbocyanine dyes  (bis trimethine cyanine dyes) derived from the nucleusof benzo[2,3-b; 2',3'-b'] bis furo[2,3-d]imidazoline-3,5,8,10-tetraone were synthesized. The electronic visible adsorption spectra of all the synthesized cyanine dyes were investigated in 95% ethanol solution. Solvatochromism and/or halochromism for some selected dyes were examined in pure solvents having different polarities (water, dimethylformamide, ethanol, chloroform, carbontetrachloride and dioxane)  and/or in aqueous universal buffer solutions owing varied pH values (1.45, 2.03, 3.72, 5.09, 7.57, 8.91, 10.20 and 12.04 units), respectively. Structural confirmations were determined by elemental analysis, visible, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral data. 

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Abdulrafiu O. Majolagbe, Adebola A. Adeyi and Oladele Osibanjo1. 2016. Vulnerability assessment of groundwater pollution in the vicinity of an active dumpsite (Olusosun), Lagos, Nigeria. Chemistry International 2(4) 232-241

Abstract

The deleterious impacts of dumpsite activities and the associated risk on both the environment and human is consequential, hence this study assessed groundwater vulnerability to pollution from dumpsite using a modified DRASTIC model.  Six hydrogeological factors: D- Depth to water,  R- Net Recharge, A- Aquifer media, L- Distance of well to dumpsite, T- Topography, and  C- Clay content were  used  in the modification (DRALTC) based on peculiarity of the study area. Cluster analysis of groundwater data and Water Quality Index (WQI) were also evaluated. The groundwater vulnerability index was characterized by two zones; forty five percent (45%) moderate and fifty five percent (55%) high zones. The dendogram showed three clusters of chemical dissimilarities. The WQI showed values between 61.8 and 205, indicating good–poor–very poor class of water. The analysis of the groundwater samples showed nitrate concentration ranging from 7.60 to 35.6 mg/L and from 8.56 to 32.4 mg/L in dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The DRALTC model was validated using nitrate concentration. Though, there appeared relative groundwater protection from contamination, there is still need for measures to mitigate further contamination and associated risk in the moderate vulnerability zones. DRALTC model is proved a good tool in groundwater management. 

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Shahryar Jafarinejad. 2016. Control and treatment of sulfur compounds specially sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions from the petroleum industry: A review. Chemistry International 2(4) 242-253

Abstract

Sulfur compounds such as sulfur oxides (SOx) are generated and emitted from operations in the petroleum industry which have negative effects on the environment. This study gives a critical and detailed introduction to the control and treatment of sulfur compounds specially sulfur oxides (SOx) emissions from the petroleum industry. It begins with the sectors, main sources, and type of operations that generate SOx emissions; maximum effluent level of them from the petroleum industry; minimization, control, prevention and treatment techniques of these emissions from the petroleum industry. Among these techniques, sulfur recovery unit (SRU) which most often consists of a Claus process for bulk sulfur removal and subsequently a tail gas treatment unit (TGTU) for the remaining H2S removal (SCOT process, Beavon sulfur removal (BSR) process, and Wellman-Lord process) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) processes (once-through or regenerable) have been discussed in detail; and removal efficiencies and technical and economical aspects have been compared.

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Abdulmumeen A. Hamid, Stephen O. Oguntoye, Sherifat O. Alli, Grace A. Akomolafe, Adejumoke Aderinto, Adeola Otitigbe, Adebola M. Ogundare, Quareeb Musa Esinniobiwa, Rasidat O. Aminu1. 2016. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of Grewia pubescens. Chemistry International 2(4) 254-261

Abstract

The phytochemical screening of Grewia pubescens leaf extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, tannins, glycosides and fats and oils. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on six bacterial strains and four fungal strains and exhibited satisfactory inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Klebsiellae pneumonae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, penicillium notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer, except ethyl acetate extract which showed no antifungal property on penicillium notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Methanol extract of the plant possessed significant antioxidant activity by exhibiting DPPH free radical scavenging property with IC50 of 10.26 µM, using DPPH antioxidant assay. The compounds present in the extracts were characterised using Gas chromatograph-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Six compounds in the Grewia pubescens of while hexadecanoic acid is the most abundant constituting 62% and this plant has potential to act as antimicrobial agent in antimicrobial drugs.

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Shahana Ehsan, Sahar Sarfraz, Bushra Khan, Syeda Mona Hassan and Munawar Iqbal. 2016. A rapid solid supported synthesis of 4-amino-5-(pyridin-4-YL)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiol and its derivatives. Chemistry International 2(4) 262-266

Abstract

1,2,4-Triazoles and its substituted derivatives were synthesized since these compounds are known for their excellent antibacterial, antifungal, anti-tubercular, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities. 1,2,4-triazole and substituted derivatives of 1,2,4-triazole were synthesized using solid state microwave irradiation technique and synthesized compounds were characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR and GC-MS techniques and in future study the biological activities of synthesized compounds will studied.  

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C. P. Ukpaka. 2016. Empirical model approach for the evaluation of pH and conductivity on pollutant diffusion in soil environment. Chemistry International 2(4) 267-278.

Abstract

This work is aimed at developing a mathematical model equation that can be used to predict the fate of contaminant in the soil environment. The mathematical model was developed based on the fundamental laws of conservation and the equation of continuity given as, and was resolved to obtain a quadratic equation of the form C(X) = DX2+vX+f . The developed equation was then used to fit the experimental data that were obtained from the Physio-chemical analysis of the soil samples which were obtained at various depths; within the vicinity of the H & H Asphalt plant Company, located at Enito 3 in Ahoada West L.G.A, River State, Nigeria. The Experimental and Model results obtained from the Calculation and Simulation of the developed models were compared numerically and graphically as presented in this work. It was observed that there is reasonable level of agreement between the three results. The polynomial of the curve was established to ascertain the validity of the model; this was done for all the parameters that were analyzed. From the findings the model developed can be used to predict the concentration of a chemical pollutant at various depths. The reliability of the model developed was established giving the fact that through this quadratic equation the diffusivity (coefficient of diffusion), the water velocity and the irreversible reaction decay rate could be determined.  

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A. EL Guerdaoui, R. Tijar, B. El Merbouh, M. Bourjila, R.  Drissi  El Bouzaidi, A. El Gridani, M. EL Mouhtadi. 2016. Conformational analysis of diamide system HCO-L-Phenylalanine-NH2 by genetic algorithm. Chemistry International 2(4) 279-290

Abstract

Present work reports a detailed conformational and energy study of diamide system HCO-L-Phenylalanine-NH2 using genetic algorithm based on multi-Niche crowding technique (MNC) coupled with semi-empirical method AM1. Analysis showed the existence of 28 conformations covering 6 folds among 9 predicted with multi-dimensional conformational analysis MDCA. The relative stabilities are discussed in terms of hydrogen bonding established within the main chains,  and various other types of electrostatic interactions between the main chain and the side one. 

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