Issue 9

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Banji Adaramola and Adebayo Onigbinde. Influence of extraction technique on the mineral content and antioxidant capacity of edible oil extracted from ginger rhizome. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 1-7

Abstract

Influence of various extraction techniques (solvent-solvent, cold maceration and soxhlet extraction) on the mineral content and antioxidant capacity of ginger oil was investigated. The minerals determined were magnesium, manganese, zinc, iron, calcium, potassium, sodium and phosphorus. Flavonoid and phenolic contents were determined alongside the antioxidant capacity of the oils which was assayed using DPPH radical scavenging activity and total reducing power. Extracted oil showed strong characteristic pungent gingerly odor and was liquids at room temperature. Highest oil yield was obtained by soxhlet extraction technique (8.04± 0.04%); followed by cold maceration technique (5.30±0.03%) and the lowest by solvent-solvent extraction technique (4.83±0.08%). The results of the mineral analysis showed that oil obtained by soxhlet extraction technique had the highest concentration of all minerals determined, except manganese (3.80±0.01 mg/100g) which was highest in the oil obtained by cold maceration. The oil obtained by solvent-solvent extraction showed lowest concentration of all minerals determined, except calcium (1.08±0.10mg/100g) and zinc (0.63±0.11mg/100g) which were lowest in oil obtained by cold maceration. However, the concentration of phosphorus was highest in all the oils when compared with other minerals. Oil obtained by soxhlet extraction showed the highest concentration of flavonoids (118.00±1.00mgQE/g) and phenolics (217.33±1.53 mgGAE/g) as well as the highest average DPPH radical scavenging capacity (55.56±0.04%) and average total reducing power (0.88±0.002) while the least concentration of flavonoids (44.45±2.97 mgQE/g), phenolics (112.43±1.42 mgGAE/g), average DPPH radical scavenging capability (19.73±0.01%) and average total reducing power (0.55±0.030) were obtained for the oil obtained by solvent-solvent extraction technique. The results showed that heat and reflux condition involved in the soxhlet extraction technique enhanced the extraction of minerals and phytochemicals from ginger rhizome and also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of ginger rhizome oil. 

 

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C. P. Ukpaka. BTX Degradation: The concept of microbial integration. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 8-18

Abstract

The concept of microbial integration was carried out to examine bacterial and fungal activity on bezene, toluence and xylene (BTX) degradation in a batch reactor. The investigation was conducted for thirty five day of exposure of contact of members and substrate which yielded enzyme substrate complex as well disintegrated to produce products and free enzyme. Bacterial and fungal concentration was monitored per week and the results obtained recorded. The gas chromatography results of Ngara soil sample investigated reveals the concentration of M, P, and O – Xylene for different days of exposure. Increase in both bacterial and fungal was experienced with decrease in BTX concentration, whereas increase in bacterial is more than fungi, indicating the high activity of bacterial in the reactor than that of fungi. Although, both of them were well integrated in bioremediation programme to enhance effective remediation of BTX contaminants in Ngara soil, Omuigwe Alun Community, Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. 

 

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Sheila Srivastava, Parul Srivastava, Vandana Gupta and Arti Jaiswal. Homogeneous catalytic oxidation of some polyhydric alcohols by iridium trichloride. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 19-24

Abstract

The kinetic investigation for catalyzed oxidation of D-Sorbitol and Glycerol using in Ir(III) in an acidified solution of NBS  in the presence of Hg(OAc)2 as a scavenger for bromide ion has been carried out in the temperature range of 300 - 450 C. First order kinetics in the lower NBS concentration range tended to zero order at higher concentration. Increase in concentration of Cl- and H+ ion showed fractional inverse order while the order of reaction w.r.t. substrate was zero.  Negligible effect of Hg(OAc)2 and ionic strength of the medium was observed. A suitable mechanism in conformity with the kinetic observations has been proposed and the various activation parameters have been calculated. 

 

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  Yohannes Mulugeta Hailu, Minaleshewa Atlabachew, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi and Mesfin Redi-Abshiro. Composition of essential oil and antioxidant activity of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk), Ethiopia. International 3(1) (2017) 25-31.

Abstract

 

Inthis study, we determined the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from two different varieties of khat (Catha edulis Forsk) cultivated in Ethiopia. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillationusing the Clevenger type apparatus, identifications of compounds were made by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Seventy seven different compounds were identified from essential oils of the two different khat cultivars. The essential oils in the samples from Bahir Dar and Wendo were composed of 50 and 34 compounds, respectively. The major compound identified in khatessentials oils include: limonene, 1-phenyl-1,2-propanedione,  1-hydroxy,1-phenyl-2-propanone, camphor, (sulfurous acid)-2-propylundecyl ester, hexadecane, O-mentha-1(7),8-dien-3-ol, heptadecane, 10-methylnonadecane, (phthalic acid)-isobutyl octadecyl ester, and tritetracontane. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the oils were assessed by means of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The scavenging activities of the oils were 23.5-23.6 µg AAE/kg of fresh khat sample.

 

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Sheila Srivastava and Dharmraj Prajapati. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of Os(VIII) catalysed oxidation of glycine by ferrate(VI) in alkaline medium. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 133-138.

Abstract

 

Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation on Os (VIII) catalysed oxidation of glycine by ferrate(VI) has been done in basic medium and in the temperature range 30– 450C.  Rate of oxidation increases with increase in [FeO4]2- and [Os(VI)] and shows first order dependence. Rate of oxidation also increases with the increase in [S] but order is fractional. The rate decreases with an increase in pH . Rate of reaction is independent of [KCl], [KNO3] and change in ionic strength. The values of rate constant observed at four different temperatures were used to calculate the activation parameters. The energy of activation (∆E*) of the reaction at pH 11 and temperature 350C was found to be 49.56 kJmol-1. [OsO4(H2O)2] and  are proposed to be the reactive species of Os (VIII) and Fe (VI) respectively  in the present investigation. Formaldehyde is found to be main product of the reaction along with carbon dioxide and ammonia as by products. On the basis of experimental findings, a suitable mechanism consistent with the observed kinetics is proposed and a rate law has been derived on the basis of obtained data. 

 

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    V. Srikanth, P. Shyamala and K. Sundara Rao. Kinetic of oxidation of methyl orange by vanadium (V) under  conditions   and decavanadates coexist: Catalysis by Triton X-100 micellar medium. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 39-45.

 

Abstract

 

The kinetics of oxidation of methyl orange by vanadium (V) {V (V)} has been investigated in the pH range 2.3-3.79. In this pH range V (V) exists both in the form of decavanadates and .  The kinetic results are distinctly different from the results obtained for the same reaction in highly acidic solution (pH < 1) where V (V) exists only in the form of .  The reaction obeys first order kinetics with respect to methyl orange but the rate has very little dependence on total vanadium concentration.  The reaction is accelerated by H+ ion but the dependence of rate on [H+] is less than that corresponding to first order dependence.  The equilibrium between decavanadates and  explains the different kinetic pattern observed in this pH range. The reaction is markedly accelerated by Triton X-100 micelles.  The rate-[surfactant] profile shows a limiting behavior indicative of a unimolecular pathway in the micellar pseudophase. 

 

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1   C. P. Ukpaka and Tirilagha Izonowei. Model Prediction on the Reliability of Fixed Bed Reactor for Ammonia Production. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 46-57.

Abstract

 

In this research work Haber process was employed to examine the reliability of the functional parameters and coefficient on ammonia production using the fixed bed reactor with hydrogen gas and nitrogen used as the main source of the reactant. Mathematical models were developed to monitor and predict the effectiveness factors, nitrogen fractional conversion, temperature, component mole fraction, hydrogen mole fraction, and ammonia mole fraction profile for the various cases considered during the investigation. The simulated parameters for case 1, 2 and 3 for components of total feed flow, pressure, reactor bed volume and feed composition influence the reliability of the functional parameters and the coefficient of the fixed bed reactor for optimum yield of ammonia. The developed models were simulated using Matlab program to evaluate the functional parameters and the results obtained from the system in terms of optimum yield factor indicate 30% to 34% increase in ammonia production. The increase in the performance evaluation concept revealed the reliability of the developed model in monitoring and predicting the rate of production of ammonia in a fixed bed reactor. 

 

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     Abdulrafiu O. Majolagbe, Adebola A. Adeyi,  Oladele  Osibanjo, Adewale O. Adams and  Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri. Pollution vulnerability and health risk assessment of groundwater around an engineering Landfill in Lagos, Nigeria. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 58-68.

 

Abstract

 

Solid wastes disposal, through the use of non-sanitary landfill facility has tremendous health impacts on man and environment, yet without regard to environmental consequences, the use of controlled dumpsite is at best a common practice in underdeveloped countries. The paucity of data on modelling of potential vulnerability of neighboring aquifer to the pollution from Soluos dumpsite (a non-engineering landfill) necessitate the study of the use of a model DRALTC (modified DRASTIC) on the estimation of vulnerability of groundwater to dumpsite pollution and associated health risks.  Six hydrogeological factors: Depth to water, Net Recharge, Aquifer media, Distance of wells to dumpsite, Topography, and Clay content, were involved in the modification of the model (DRALTC) which helps in characterizing the hydrogeological setting of the study area and estimation aquifer vulnerability. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and permeability index (PI) were used to analyse the data generated in this study. The health risk indices (HRI) were also estimated for trace metals in the groundwater samples. The pollution vulnerability ranged between (161 and 175) moderate and high groundwater pollution potential. SAR results observed in this study reveal 25% excellent, 20 % good, 10% doubtful and 45% unsuitable. The order HRI observed was Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb for adult, while Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn >Pb trend was found for children, though the HRI value for all the metals investigated were within the safe limit (HRI < 1.0) suggesting no health risk. 

 

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     Ayinampudi Sridhar Rao. Isolation, absolute configuration and bioactivities of megastigmanes or C13 isonorterpinoides. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 69-91.

Abstract

 

Megastigmanes or C13 isonorterpenoids a terpene class of compounds, specially the title compounds are related to sesquiterpenoides but due to C13 skeleton also it is called as norterpenoides. Most of the megastimane compounds have been isolated from the plant source such as Cucumis sativus, Crotalaria zanzibarica, staphylea bumalda, Juniperus communis and Excoecaria cohinchinensis etc. Few reports were showing the megastimane compounds are showing potencial activity against Readical scavenging (DPPH) and Hepatoprotective activities.The classification of C13 norisoprenoides, are assumed to be apocarotenoides that is formed from the degradation of carotenoides by the action of carotenoides cleavage dioxygenases which have been isolated from various plants. The majority of the evidences for this assumption is the similarly between most megastigmanes and the terminal component of plant carotenoides. Because such compounds are generally not oxygenated at C7 but commonly oxygenated at C9 presumably as a result of the oxidative cleavage of the acyclic portion of caritenoides, the key step in megastigmanes formation has been thought to be transportion of oxygen from C9 to C7. Hence, based on the above information the C9 position and its absolute configuration is very important to get potential activity against various diseases, in this progression a lot of literature reports were showing the importance and absolute configuration at C9 position in megastigmanes or C13 norisoprenoides. In this review, we are reporting the chemistry, absolute configuration and bioactivities of megastigmanes or C13 norisoterpenoides. To our knowledge, this is the first review on megastimanes and its absolute configuration.

 

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     S. O. Agunbiade, O. J. Ojezele and A. M. Eze. Maximizing the incorporation of Cassava flour as an adjunct in bread baking in Nigeria. Chemistry International 3(1) (2017) 92-96.

 

Abstract

 

Bread is popular around the world and is one of the world’s oldest foods. Bread is usually made from common wheat-flour dough.  Till date most people are not familiar with other types of bread apart from that made from 100% wheat flour. When a part of wheat flour is replaced with flours from other food sources (yam, cassava, etc) the wheat gluten is automatically reduced. This study aimed at re-examining the approval of ten percent (10%) cassava flour inclusion in bread baking in Nigeria and evaluating higher % substitutions, with a view to increasing cassava carrying capacity for producing acceptable bread. The water absorption capacity (WAC) of wheat, cassava and composite flours ranged from 62.7 to 79% while oil absorption capacity(OAC) ranged from 4.5 to 72%. As cassava percent inclusion increased both WAC and OAC increased. Bread loaves produced from 10-20% inclusions without egg white had sensory scores of 3.2 to 3.9 and were significantly (p<0.05) better than 25-30% wheat cassava composite bread loaves. In all sensory attributes, 10 - 20% cassava inclusion, with added egg white, produced bread loaves which were as good as 100% wheat bread.  In terms of taste, colour, odour and texture 25-30% composite bread loaves had identical sensory values. This study showed that bread of acceptable quality can be produced from wheat flour substituted with up to 30% cassava flour. 

 

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