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Issue 11

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Vishvanath D. Patil, Ketan P. Patil, Nagesh. R. Sutar and Prathamesh V. Gidh. Phenyl boronic acid - promoted efficient synthesis of perimidine derivatives under ambient conditions. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 195-201.

Abstract

Various biologically important perimidines derivatives have been efficiently synthesized in excellent from Napthalene-1,8-diamine and various ketones in presence of a catalytic amount of Phenyl boronic acid. This approach offers many advantages such as good product yield, short reaction time, easy isolation of products, mild reaction conditions.  

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Antonius Herry Cahyana, Natania and Ellyn. Study on the stability of antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase activities using soaking treatment of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) mucilage extracts. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 202-211.

Abstract

Okra fruit (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) especially its mucilaginous properties has been reported to have various health benefits include antioxidant and anti-diabetic properties. This research was aimed to investigate the stability of antioxidant and anti-α-glucosidase activities (as one of antidiabetic activities) of okra mucilage through several soaking treatments in term optimizing mucilage extraction as well. Okra fruit and its peel are used and soaked with water in several soaking conditions: time (1, 4, 8, and 12 h); temperature (room and refrigerator temperature); and ratio of fruit:water (1:3 and 1:6). Analysis of yield percentage, flavonoid content, free radical scavenging activity and anti α-glucosidase activity were observed. The highest antioxidant activity of the sample was found in the extracting methods of 12 h in refrigerator temperature with soaking ratio of 1:6 (897.26+19.67 mg/L) while for anti α-glucosidase activity was found in extracting methods of 12 h in refrigerator temperature with soaking ratio of 1:3 (525.92±40.75mg/L). The stability of antioxidant and anti α-glucosidase activities of okra mucilage might be influenced by the extracted flavonoid content and other active components.  

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Adam Mekonnen Engida and Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi. Assessment of heavy metals in tobacco of cigarettes commonly sold in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 212-218.

Abstract

A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. This study reports Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn contents in tobacco of 11 brands of cigarette commonly sold in Ethiopia. The heavy metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after wet digestion of cigarette tobacco using HNO3 and H2O2. The concentration of trace metals in the cigarettes ranged (mean) (μg/g), Cd: 1.3−7.6 (2.48±0.32), Pb: 0.50−12.50 (6.24±2.2), Cu: 2.89−25.35 (13.70±4.12) and Zn: 24.40−62.55 (36.22±7.50) while Ni was not detected in all the eleven brands of cigarettes. Comparable levels of trace metals were obtained in the tobacco of both imported and Ethiopian cigarettes. The average trace metal contents of cigarettes available in Ethiopia were Cd 1.82±0.39, Pb 4.23±0.97, Cu 10.2±3.1 and Zn 28.2±7.8 μg/cigarette and a person who smokes 20 cigarettes per day is estimated to increase his/her daily Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn retention by approximately 0.036, 0.085, 0.204, 0.564 mg/day, respectively. The results indicate that smoking and exposure to cigarette smoke is a serious problem to be taken into account when carrying out epidemiological studies on human exposure to trace metals.  

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Imran Ali, Mohammadd, Suhail and Al Arsh Basheer. Advanced spiral periodic classification of the elements. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 219-223.

Abstract

An advanced spiral periodic classification of the elements is presented. It has 32 groups and 8 periods. The proposed new periodic classification is a spiral arrangement of the elements, arranged by their increasing atomic number, electronic configuration and recurring chemical properties. The debatable positions of hydrogen and helium have been rectified in the spiral periodic classification. Two equations are also given for the diagonal relationship among the elements of 2nd and 3rd periods. This classification may be acceptable in the scientific community to work properly and easily. Moreover, this classification is also capable to predict the places of undiscovered elements.  

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Khedidja Benouis. Phytochemicals and bioactive compounds of pulses and their impact on health. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 224-229.

Abstract

At Sixty-eighth session, the United Nations General Assembly (20 December, 2013) announced that 2016 is the International Year of Pulses(IYP) and The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations was nominated for implementation of the International Year in collaboration with governments and different organizations. Pulses constitute an important source of several substances needed for good health, as phytochemicals and natural bioactive compounds.  These grains are very high in nutrients; rich with protein, complex carbohydrates, soluble dietary fiber, and can be stored for months without losing their high nutritional value. Also, pulses are characterized by their nitrogen fixing properties contribute to increased soil fertility and have beneficial effects on the environment, but their benefits are often underestimated. In this mini-review, the health benefits of phytochemicals and bioactive components in pulses briefly we described.  

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Atakilt Abebe, Abreham Sendek, Silesh Ayalew and Mulugeta Kibret. Copper(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing 1, 10-phenanthroline,  adenine and thymine: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activities. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 230-239.

Abstract

New copper complexes, [Cu(phen)2(Thy)]2Cl and [Cu(phen)2(Ad)]2Cl (phen = 1,10-phenantroline, Ad= Adenine (a purine nucleobase) and Thy= Thymine ( a pyrimidine nucleobase)), were synthesized and characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), conductivity measurement, UV-visible and infrared (IR) techniques. The complexes were tested for their antimicrobial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacterial strains. The results of in vitro antimicrobial activities were compared with the commercially available antimicrobial agents (Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol). This comparative study has demonstrated that [Cu(phen)2(Thy)]2Cl inhibited the growth of  Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureous (MRSA), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumonia) better than chloramphenicol by 11.25%, 19.41% and 25.35%, respectively. It also showed better activities than Ciprofloxacine on MRSA and K. pneumoniae by 2.50% and 12.13%, respectively. Similarly, [Cu(phen)2(Ad)]2Cl demonstrated better inhibitions than chloramphenicol against MRSA, E. coli and K. pneumoniae by 11.24%, 2.48% and 9.06%,  respectively. Therefore, after in vivo cytotoxicity investigations, these complexes could be considered as potential antimicrobial agents. 

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Vishvanath D. Patil, Ketan P. Patil, Nagesh R. Sutar and Prathamesh V. Gidh. Efficient synthesis of biscoumarins using zinc acetate as a catalyst in aqueous media. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 240-243.

 

Abstract

Bis-(4-hydroxycoumarin)methanes derivatives (1-9) were synthesized via one pot condensation reaction of various aromatic aldehyde and 4-hydroxycoumarin using zinc acetate as a catalyst in presence of water as a solvent. This mediated reaction of various aromatic and hetero-aromatic aldehydes using catalytic amounts of zinc acetate avoids the use of expensive, corrosive reagents, toxic solvents and provides operational simplicity. 

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Adejoh Ocheni and Uguge Clement. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of 1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-4-(pyrolidin-2-ylideneamino)-pyrazolidin-3-one and complex with iron(II). Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 244-249.

 

Abstract

A multifunctional ligand derivative of pyrrolidone has been synthesized by condensation reaction between 4-aminoantipyrine and 2-pyrrolidinone. The ligand and its Iron(II) complex were characterized using physical method and UV and IR techniques. The ligand and Fe(II) complex were tested  against broad spectrums of bacterial organisms and the results show that both the ligand and complex were active against various organisms tested. 

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Bamidele Amos-Tautua, Olusiji Ajileye, Solomon Ndoni, Funminiyi Bamidele and Adebayo Onigbinde. Evaluation of phenolic contents, free radical scavenging activity and functional group analysis of the leaf extract of a medicinal plant in Niger Delta Region. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 250-257.

 

Abstract

Funtumia africana leaves have been used by the people of Niger Delta region of Nigeria to treat diabetes. This study aims to evaluate the polyphenolic contents, antioxidant, and free radical scavenging activities of the leaf crude extract and fractions. The crude aqueous methanolic leaf extract of F. africana was extracted by liquid-liquid partitioning into n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions. The free radical scavenging activity of the fractions was measured in vitro by using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl dihydrazyl (DPPH), and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and flavonoids in the extract and polar fractions.  The highest total phenolics, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity were found to be 1331.18±41.56 mg GAE/g, 833.96±19.14 mg QUE/g and 83.74±1.88 mgAAE/g respectively in the butanol fraction. The n-hexane and butanol fractions demonstrated strong DPPH scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.06±0.57 and 0.06±0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The DCM fraction showed the highest NO scavenging activity with IC50 value of 0.741±0.07 mg/ml, while hexane fraction has negligible effect. The butanolic fraction has the highest ferric reducing antioxidant activity with value of 48.46±0.15 mg AAE/g of sample. 

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C. P. Ukpaka and F. U. Igwe. Modeling of the velocity profile of a bioreactor: the concept of biochemical process. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 258-267.

 

Abstract

This research covers the modeling of the velocity profile of a bioreactor with recycle; the concept of biochemical process. The biochemical process adopted is fermentation and a plug-flow fermenter (PFF) was taken as a case study. The derivation of workable model equations for monitoring and predicting the velocity profile of a PFF were obtained, together with obtaining the model equations for investigating the effect of microbial and substrate concentrations on the discharge coefficient, bioreactor’s volume. Constant data were sourced from literatures, together with hypothetical values to simulate the derived model equations using Mathlab.  The substrate concentration decreases with time as biomass population increases with time.  Effect of biomass concentration on discharge coefficient, shows that increase in biomass concentration brings a corresponding increase in the discharge coefficient as well as the bioreactor’s volume revealed that substrate concentration is depleting alongside with bioreactor’s volume follows the same trend of change when substrate concentration is decreasing irrespective of whether the length or area of the bioreactor is varied.  The effect of microbial concentration on bioreactor volume when area and length of bioreactor are varied reveals that the process followed same trend only that there is a presence of lag phase upon the influence of inhibitors.  The inverse substrate concentration increases, the space velocity also increases, and there is a linear trend of change on the inverse substrate concentration with respect to space velocity. 

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Adane Abebe, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi and Ayalew Debebe. Assessment of essential and non-essential metals in popcorn and cornflake commercially available in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 268-276.

 

Abstract

The levels of essential and non-essential metals in popcorn and cornflake were determined in samples collected from an open market and supermarkets in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The samples were mineralized by wet digestion method. The volumes of reagents, digestion temperature and digestion time were optimized after proper sample pretreatment. 1 g of the powdered sample was digested with 10 mL of the mixture of HNO3 (69-72%), HClO4 (60%) and H2O2 (30%) in a volume ratio of 6:2:2 (v/v) for 3 hours at 120 0C on a Kjeldahl digestion apparatus. The levels of metals in the digest were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (for major metals: K, Na, Mg, Ca) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (for trace and heavy metals: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd). The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by analyzing the digest of the spiked samples with standard solution and the percentage recoveries varied from 91.2–109%. The level of the metals determined (mg/kg dry weight) were: K 1293±233, Na 148±3, Mg 387±11, Ca 97.9±4.2, Cr 0.68±0.09, Mn (6.17±0.18, Fe 9.5± 2.1, Co 1.41±0.16, Cu 0.09±0.007, Zn 88.3±9.7 and Pb 0.94±0.29 in the popcorn and K 612±70, Na 410±5, Mg 323±11, Ca 196±99, Cr 0.30±0.0.07, Mn 3.0±0.1, Fe 5.5± 0.74, Co 0.32±0.03, Cu 0.30±0.01, Zn 40.7±2.5 and Pb 0.36±0.03 in the cornflake while the concentration of Cd and Ni were below the detection limit in both the samples. K and Zn were present at the highest levels among major and trace metals, respectively. The popcorn and cornflake samples purchased from Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) were free from the toxic metals Cd and Ni, but not from Pb.   

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 Limenew Abate, Atakilt Abebe and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Studies on antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts   of Plantago   lanceolata   leaves. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 277-287.

 

Abstract

In this study, three different antioxidant activity quantification methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH), reducing power, FRAP and peroxide value determination including total phenolic, TP, total flavonoid, TF assays of crude leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata were carried out. The extracts showed significant activities in all antioxidant assays in a concentration dependent manner. The crude extracts were found to possess higher ferric reducing activity ranging from 336.58 ± 0.052mgAAE/100g(90% methanol) to 172.94 ± 0.032 mgAAE/100g(petroleum ether) and DPPH activity varied from 90.6% (90% methanol) to 36.04% (petroleum ether). Strong correlation of TPC with AEACDPPH and AEACFRAP (R2 = 0.9033 and R2 = 0.8538 respectively) implied that compounds in the extract were proficient to scavenge the DPPH free radical and reducing ferric ions into ferrous ions. Moreover, peroxide values of the extracts were obtained and varied from 19.8meq/kg (90% methanol) to 379meq/kg(petroleum ether) and 3.1meq/kg (90% methanol) to 119meq/kg (petroleum ether) at 70oc and room temperature respectively. Therefore, P. lanceolata leaf extracts as compared to the control showed effective activity in delaying oxidation of the oil. Antimicrobial capacity evaluation of crude extract against different gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were also evaluated and a higher degree of antimicrobial activity with mean zone of inhibition ranging from zero to 26mm were detected. MIC and MBC values from 6.25%   up to 25% were also confirmed for the crude extracts.  

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Kidanemariam Desta and Meareg Amare. Validated UV-Visible spectrometry using water as a solvent for determination of chloroquine in tablet samples. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 288-295.

 

Abstract

Reported methods including the official methods for determination of chloroquine in tablet samples use carcinogenic organic solvents. In this study, UV-Vis spectrometry using water as a solvent was developed for determination of chloroquine phosphate in pharmaceutical tablet dosage forms. The method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) and USP guidelines. The absorbanceof chloroquinephosphate in distilled water at of 343 nm showed linear dependence on concentration in the range 10.88-30.56 µg mL-1 with determination coefficient of 0.99972. Recovery results in the range 98.79–101.20% and low coefficient of variation values for intra-day and inter-day precisions (0.37% and 0.76%, respectively) showed the accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The method was used for determination of chloroquine phosphate in tablet formulations of different brands. Results in the range 100.63–103.52% of the labeled chloroquine phosphate in tablet formulations confirmed the applicability of the developed method for real sample analysis. Hence, the developed UV-Vis method using environmentally friendly water as a solvent, with an excellent accuracy and precision showed that the developed method can be a potential substituent for the official reference methods.  

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D. O. Kehinde, K. O. Ogunwenmo, B. Ajeniya, M. B. Ogunnowo and A. O. Onigbinde. Effects of X-ray irradiation on growth physiology of Arachis Hypogaea (Var. Kampala). Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 296-300.

 

Abstract

Small doses of X-ray may stimulate cellular activities and growth while higher doses may cause higher aberrations. Seeds of Arachis hypogaea cv Kampala were exposed singly to X-ray radiations (6 mA-77 mA)  X-ray significantly decreased seed germination above 6 mA, reduced root and shoot growth as X-ray exposure increased. X-ray radiation causes chromosomal aberration. Therefore higher X-ray radiation affects the plant germination negatively by retarding the growth.  

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K. Legrouri, E. Khouya, H. Hannache, M. El Hartti, M. Ezzine and R. Naslain. Activated carbon from molasses efficiency for Cr(VI), Pb(II) and Cu(II) adsorption: A mechanistic study. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 301-310.

 

Abstract

Activated carbon was prepared from molasses, which are natural precursors of vegetable origin resulting from the sugar industry. A simple elaboration process, based on chemical activation with phosphoric acid, was proposed. The final product, prepared by activation of molasses/phosphoric acid mixture in air at 500°C, presented high surface area (more than 1400 m2/g) and important maximum adsorption capacity for methylene blue (625 mg/g) and iodine (1660 mg/g). The activated carbon (MP2(500)) showed a good potential for the adsorption of Cr(VI), Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. The affinity for the three ions was observed in the following order Cu2+> Cr6+> Pb2+. The process is governed by monolayer adsorption following the Langmuir model, with a correlation coefficient close to unity.  

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Tsegay Hiwot. Determination of  oil and biodiesel  content ,  physicochemical properties of  the oil extracted from avocado seed (Persea Americana)  grown  in Wonago  and  Dilla  (gedeo zone), southern  Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 311-319.

 

Abstract

The avocado seeds were collected from Dilla and Wonago in gedeo zone, southern part of Ethiopia for oil extraction and biodiesel production. The collected seeds were oven dried and crushed in to powder by mortar and pestle. A soxhlet extraction was used for extraction of the oil. The solvent used for oil extraction was n-hexane. The extracted oil was separated from the solvents by vacuum rata evaporator. The oil content, biodiesel content and the physico-chemical parameters of the oil as well as the biodiesel were determined .The oil content and biodiesel content is 27.6% and 95.2% for avocado seed grown in Wonago and 27.2% and 94.86% for avocado seed grown in Dilla respectively. The physico-chemical parameters of the oil and biodiesel were determined and the result shows that the acid value of (4, 4.3, 0.89,0.92), saponification value (223, 219 ), Kinematic viscosity (36,7,5.02,37.44,5.15), Density (933,882,936,884g/ml),  Higher heating (38,40.5,37,40), Ester  content (95.2,94.86)  respectively. Based on the GC-MS analysis of the biodiesel, four FAME compounds were identified. These are methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate , methyl oleate and methyl  stearate. From the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel determined avocado seed oil methyl ester could be used as an alternative energy resource in diesel engine.  

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Noria Kada Benabdallah,  Djamila Harrache, Alba Mir, Miguel de la Guardia, Fatima-Zahra Benhachem. Bioaccumulation of trace metals by red alga Corallina elongata in the coast of Beni Saf, west coast, Algeria. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 220-231.

 

Abstract

The aim of present research was to study the accumulation of trace metals s (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Co) by the red alga Corallina elongata, collected in four sampling sites located in the Beni saf coast (Algerian west coast), where two of them are characterized by discharges of urban effluents or from port activity, and the two others are seaside resorts. The differences were observed between sampling sites for the presence some heavy metals. Indeed, it appears that the bioaccumulation of Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb by red alga is from continental origin, such as discharges of urban effluents or those derived from port activity. However, the accumulation of Zn, Co, Cr by this alga is not influenced by the surrounding environment, or that the bioavailability of these elements is lower, therefore, it seems that bioaccumulation of these metals by Corallina elongata is influenced by other factors. The spatio-temporal variations show that the accumulation of metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb in the red alga is highest in summer. However, the concentration of Co and Cd tend to be accumulated in the alga, in winter. The Fe concentration was a good predictor of  Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni,V  accumulation in this species of alga. A strong correlation was observed between Fe and Mn, which confirms the big similarity of their biochemical roles, already known in the marine environment. However, Zn inhibits Cd accumulation in red alga. Our study shows that heavy metal accumulation is associated with nature of the metal, degree of contamination of sampling site, physicochemical properties of the marine environment and the season.  

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R. M. Abdel Aal, I. I. Abd El Gawad and Z. M. Essam. Novel pyrazolo pyrazoly heterocyclic in the synthesis of positive solvatochromic cyanine dyes. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 232-241.

 

Abstract

Novel cyanine dyes monomethine, bismonomethine and trimethine cyanine dyes were synthesized from 5-hydroxy-2-(5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3-methyl-1-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-2-ium as a nucleus.  Structure confirmed by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, mass and visible was determined. The electronic visible absorption spectra of all the newly synthesized cyanine dyes were investigated in 95% ethanol solution. Solvatochromism for the newly prepared cyanine dyes were performed in pure solvents having different polarities.  

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S. Jafarinejad. Recent developments in the application of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment. Chemistry International 3(3) (2017) 241-250.

 

Abstract

Oily wastewater treatment in the petroleum industry may generally be classified as process wastewater pretreatment, primary treatment, secondary treatment, and tertiary treatment or polishing. In secondary treatment, dissolved oil and other organic pollutants may be consumed biologically by microorganisms. Biological treatment of complex chemicals in the petroleum industry wastewaters is specially challenging due to the inhibition and/or toxicity of these compounds when they serve as microbial substrates. Processes such as sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technology which promote the mineralization of the petroleum industry wastewaters containing toxic compounds seem to be promising. In this study, principles of SBR, modifications in SBR technology, effective parameters on SBR process, and recent developments in the application of SBR technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed.  

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Issue 12

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Wondu Dagnaw and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Preliminary phytochemical screening, isolation and structural elucidation of chloroform leaf extracts of Maesa lanceolata. Chemistry International 3(4), (2017) 251-257

Abstract

The aim of this study was to screen the phytochemical constituents, isolate and elucidate the structure of chloroform extracts from the leaves of Maesa lanceolata. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the leaf extract of Maesa lanceolata was done following standard procedures and the tests revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides and saponins in the crude extracts. The chloroform extract of the leaves of M. lanceolata led to the isolation of one compound, C1. Structure determination was accomplished by means of spectroscopic methods (IR, 13C and 1H NMR). According to the spectral data (IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and DEPT), probably Myrsenene was identified which is reported for the first time from M. lanceolata.

  

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Reda Mahmoud Abdel Aal, Mihai A. Gitru, Zahraa Mohammed Essam. 2017. Novel synthetized near infrared cyanine dyes as sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells based on nano-TiO2. Chemistry International 3(4) 258-267

Abstract

The shortage of energy resources and increasing demand of alternative resources has become urgent priority for the world. Therefore research in this area is extremely important and promising as in renewable energy. Thus complete solar cells sensitized with cyanine dyes 3-5, having near infrared absorption band optimized for solar cell, are synthesized, characterized and studied in the sun light conversion efficiency. The obtained results should be valid for large studies to reveal the main problems in obtaining sufficient performance of near infrared absorbing dyes.

  

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S. Jafarinejad. Activated sludge combined with powdered activated carbon (PACT process) for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment: A review. Chemistry International 3(4) 268-277.

Abstract

Treatment of petroleum industry wastewater by a conventional process such as activated sludge may be hindered by the presence of recalcitrant organic compounds; therefore, tertiary treatments for wastewater polishing are required. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) adding to the activated sludge process can lead to a higher quality of treated wastewater, a more stable system and the production of reusable water. In this study, history, principles, mechanisms, and advantages of powdered activated carbon treatment (PACT) process, selection of carbon, typical configuration of a refinery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consisting of the PACT process, and application and/or performance of the PACT technology for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment have been reviewed. Several laboratory, pilot and full scale studies have demonstrated that PACT technology can be useful for the petroleum industry wastewater treatment. PACT process can generally be applied for the petroleum industry wastewater in those cases where stringent standards require to be met for certain contaminants.

  

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1    S. Fait, S. Fakhi, M. El Mzibri, Z. Faiz, H. Fougrach, W. Badri, A. Smouni, M. Fahr.Distribution of metallic trace elements (ETM) in surface soils around the mediouna discharge (southern of Casablanca).Chemistry International 3(4), (2017) 278-285.

Abstract

The objective of present research was to characterize the surface soils located at 300, 600 and 1000m of an uncontrolled landfill. The work also aims to evaluate the levels and spatial distribution of metallic trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co and As) in these soils. Soil samples were collected in 36 points around the landfill. Results showed that Cd, Pb, Zn are concentrated in the soils rich in clay and carbonates, and in organic matter, located at 300 m from the landfill. The basic pH of all soils enhances the retention of these metals. On the other hand, As present in soils at 300, 600 and 1000 m at concentrations slightly higher than those of referenced soils were apparently mobilized by water from the solid/water interfaces. The other metals Cu, Ni, Co, Cr are present at very lowconcentrations.

  

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1.   Okenwa U. Igwe and Chisom Friday. Volatile constituents of hydrocolloids isolated from Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum seeds. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 286-291.

Abstract

The seed endosperms of Afzelia africana and Detarium microcarpum are known materials for soup thickening in Southeast and some other parts of Nigeria. The hydrocolloids responsible for the thickening effect were isolated from the seed endosperms and characterised using GC-MC technique. The volatile fraction of A. africana seed hydrocolloids showed the presence of seventeen constituents consisting of aromatic (0.80 %), hydrocarbons (7.67 %), phenolic (0.39 %), esters (10.19 %), fatty acids (36.35 %), alcohols (42.24 %) and steroid (2.36 %). On the other hand, twenty two compounds were identified in the seed hydrocolloids of D. microcarpum. They consist of hydrocarbons (20.32 %), aromatics (2.14 %), aldehyde (0.49 %), phenolic (0.37 %), fatty acids (67.80 %), esters (5.09 %) and alcohol (3.80 %). This investigation reveals that the two hydrocolloids contain appreciable amount of volatile phytochemicals that could provide certain physiological benefits to the body. Hydrocolloids from D. microcarpum contain more volatile phytochemicals than that of A. africana.

  

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1.     Fenta Minas, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi and Seyoum Leta. Chemical precipitation method for chromium removal and its recovery from tannery wastewater in Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 291-305.

Abstract

Most tanneries in Ethiopia (90%) do not treat and very few (10%) partially treat their effluent before discharging it into the receiving water bodies. The untreated tannery effluent causes tremendous pollution of water resources in the country, especially due to its high organic loading and chromium content. Chromium(III) salts are the most widely used chemicals for tanning processes, but only about 60-70% of total chromium salts reacts with the hides and about 30-40% of the chromium remain in the solids and liquid wastes (especially spent tanning solutions). Therefore, the removal and recovery of the chromium content of these wastewaters is necessary for environmental protection and economic reasons. The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative process for removing and recovering trivalent chromium from tannery wastewater via chemical precipitation with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and magnesium oxide (MgO). The effects of pH, stirring time, settling rate and sludge volume were studied in batch experiments. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Cr concentration. The results showed that removal efficiencies of the precipitating agents NaOH (99.97%), Ca(OH)2 (99.97%) and MgO ( 99.98%) at optimum pH values were not significantly different. However, there was a significant difference in sludge volume of NaOH (590 mL), Ca(OH)2 (412 mL) and MgO (85 mL). The optimum pH of 9.8-10.3 with removal efficiency of 99.98% and the good sludge with high settling rate and lower volume was obtained using MgO precipitating agent. Hence the MgO was found to be a good precipitating agent for removal and recovery of chromium from tanning wastewater. The basic chromium sulfate (BCS) recovered at pH 2.8 is suitable for tanning mixed with fresh BCS from the market.

 

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1.      C. P. Ukpaka, S. Nwozi-Anele Adaobi and C. Ukpaka. Development and evaluation of trans amadi groundwater parameters: The integration of finite element techniques. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 306-313.

      Abstract

Mathematical model was developed and evaluated to monitor and predict the groundwater characteristics of Trans-amadi region in Port Harcourt City. In this research three major components were considered such as chloride, total iron and nitrate concentration as well as the polynomial expression on the behavious on the concentration of each component was determined in terms of the equation of the best fit as well as the square root of the curve.  The relationship between nitrate and distance traveled by Nitrate concentration by the model is given as Pc = 0.003x2 - 0.451x + 14.91with coefficient of determination, R² = 0.947, Chloride given as Pc = 0.000x2 - 0.071x + 2.343, R² = 0.951while that of Total Iron is given as Pc = 2E-05x2 - 0.003x + 0.110, R² = 0.930. All these show a strong relationship as established by Polynomial Regression Model. The finite element techniques are found useful in monitoring, predicting and simulating groundwater characteristics of Trans-amadi as well as the prediction on the variation on the parameters of groundwater with variation in time.

 

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Kaouthar Djehaf,  Amel Zahira Bouyakoub,  Rachid Ouhib, Hanane Benmansour, Ali Bentouaf, Amina Mahdad, Noureddine Moulay, Djillali Bensaid, Mohammed Ameri. Textile wastewater in Tlemcen (Western Algeria): Impact, Treatment by combined process. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 314-318.

 

      Abstract

Algerian water resources are scarce, and unequally distributed. The region is facing severe water shortage problems due to climate conditions, uneven precipitations, and the long periods of drought. Moreover, the demand for water from the urban population, industry, and especially agriculture is rapidly increasing. Water management represents an economic and ecological challenge to cope with this demand, conserve the water resources and reduce the environmental pollution. The present paper reviews the textile wastewater treatment and feasibility of reuse. The treatment was performed using a combined process; Adsorption on Bentonite (B) followed by electroflotation (EF). The effects of B concentration, pH, contact time and current density, were investigated under optimal conditions for maximal dye elimination. Water reuse activity, the potentials, risks and issued associated with reclaimed water reuse are also reviewed. The results were well fitted by both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and show that the effluent treated by this combined method contained essentially no turbidity, color or COD 99, 01%, 99, 49% and 99, 8% are the removal rates obtained, respectively. The treated effluent quality satisfied the requirement of water discharges standards. Yet, integration of many factors is needed to reuse this water.

 

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K. Benahmed Daij, S. Bellebia, Z. Bengharez. Comparative Experimental Study on the COD Removal in Aqueous Solutions of Pesticides by the Electrocoagulation Process using Monopolar Iron Electrodes. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 319-327.

      Abstract

The aim of this work is a comparative experimental study on the COD removal in aqueous solutions of the following pesticides, Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl48EC, Fenitrothion 3% and Acetamiprid20% SP by electrocoagulation process. The effect of various parameters of electrocoagulation on removal efficiency was studied and optimized. The COD removal using nonpolar iron electrodes was affected by current density, contact time, initial pH and initial concentration of pesticides. The optimum conditions for the electrocoagulation process were identified as contact time (4, 5 and 10 min), for a maximum abatement of 100 mg/L pesticide listed above respectively. The results of this investigation provide important data for the development process to remove significant concentrations of COD using moderate iron consumption, and thereby lowering the cost of treatment. Moreover, our results show that the pesticide Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl was removal quickly with a maximum rate of 87% at contact time of 4 min.

 

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Abdulmumeen A. Hamid, Stephen O. Oguntoye, Abdulrahaman Mukadam, Abdulgafar O. Zubair, Emmanuel O. Fagbohun, Joshua Adeyemo, Muinat A. Aliyu, Joseph B. Ojo, Bashir Olaniyi. Chemical constituents, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the aerial parts of Coccinia barteri. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 328-342.

      Abstract

Phytochemical analysis of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Coccinia barteri was carried out. These extracts exhibited satisfactory inhibitory activities against bacteria and fungi strains, which include; Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Methanol extract of C. barteri possesses antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH free radical with IC50 of 187.56 µg/mL, using DPPH antioxidant assay. GC-MS analysis of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the plant principally revealed the presence of phytol, ethyl hexadecanoate and clionasterol with their corresponding percentage abundance of 57.75%, 18.33% and 9.79%.

 

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A. Ayach, S. Fakhi1, Z. Faiz, A. Bouih, O. Ait malek, A. Benkdad, M. Benmansour, A. Laissaoui, M. Adjour, Y. Elbatal, I. Vioque, G. Manjon. On adsorption of Methylene Blue on bituminous schists from Tarfaya-Boujdour. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 343-352.

      Abstract

In this work, the reactivity of the surface of bituminous schists has been studied using a cation adsorbent, so-called Methylene Blue (MB). This bituminous schist is a calcareous clay rock that contains some amounts of organic matter. The samples were collected from an outcrop of Lamsied (Laâyoune), zone around Tarfaya-Boujdour. Once the granulometry of samples was well determined, the rocks were characterized by X-ray diffraction and they were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. Some parameters were considered relevant on the adsorption of MB by surface rock and they have been studied. One of these parameters is the adsorbed molecules-adsorbent contact time. This is the contact between a starting concentration of MB and a certain mass of gross rock. The analysis of results has shown that adsorption of MB can be well modelled by the Langmuir isotherm and also that a rapid kinetic (<100 min for L-type) can be fitted by a second-order equation model. The gross rock takes 84 % of the amount of MB in aqueous phase at a time less than 1min, using a rock mass of 0.1 g.

 

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J. C. Nnaji, O. J. Kingsely and B. I. Ugwu. Assessment of Garcinia kola seed as a natural material for water treatment. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 353-358.

      Abstract

The coagulation and antimicrobial efficiency of Garcinia kola at different concentrations on turbid surface water samples collected from Ogbor Hill River in Aba was studied. Phytochemical analysis showed alkaloid content of 2.11 ± 0.04 % while saponin, flavonoid and tannin contents were 0.34 ± 0.04 %, 2.16 ± 0.03 % and 0.14 ± 0.02 % respectively. Phenol content was 1.65 ± 0.01 %. The physicochemical and microbial analysis indicated that the water sample had temperature of 30.5 ± 0.10, pH of 7.4 ± 0.20, total dissolved solids of 161.54 ± 1.13 mg/L, turbidity of 31.64 ± 0.08 NTU, electrical conductivity of 221.4 ± 0.35 μS/cm, biochemical oxygen demand of 5.87 ± 0.03 mg/L, chloride content of 0.28 ± 0.02 mg/L, nitrate content of 248.6 ± 0.27 mg/L, nitrite content of 1.86 ± 0.04 mg/L, 12.00 ± 1.00 MPN/ml of Total Coliform, (7.67 ± 1.00) x102 CFU/ml of E. coli, (10.33 ± 1.15) x102 CFU/ml of faecal streptococcus, (15.67 ± 2.52) x102 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus and too numerous to count (TNTC) for Total Heterotrophic bacteria. However, microbial reduction after treatment with Garcinia kola seed extract at different concentrations ranged from 41.67 – 75.00 % for Total coliform, 34.81 – 73.92 % for E.coli, 12.87-70.96 % for Faecal streptococcus, 36.18 – 68.09 % for Staphylococcus aureus and 45.30 – 65.81 % for total heterotrophic bacteria.Garcina kola seed is non-toxic and does not significantly affect the pH and conductivity of the treated water.

 

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Abera Gure, Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi, and Taddese Wondimu Godeto. Metals in green coffee beans from major coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 359-369.

      Abstract

The metal contents of green coffee beans cultivated in major coffee growing zones of Ethiopia (Wollega, Sidamo, Harar, Bench Maji and Kafa) have been determined in representative samples of the five coffee varieties collected from Coffee Quality Inspection and Liquoring Center located in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Different sample preparation procedures were tested by varying reagent volumes and types, digestion time, digestion temperature and amount of the sample to decompose the green coffee beans and solubilize the metals. The optimal procedure required 4 h to completely digest 0.5 g of green coffee beans with 5 mL HNO3 (70%) and 1.5 mL HClO4 (70%) at 270 oC. Concentrations of metals (Ca, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometer employing a four point external calibration curve. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by analyzing sample digests spiked with standard solutions. Recoveries of the spiked samples varied from 90 to 110% in green coffee beans. The metals levels observed in green coffee beans are comparable to literature reports. Cd was not detected in any of the five samples while Pb was detected at trace level in only one of the five samples. This indicated that the Ethiopian green coffee beans are free from the toxic metals. The Pearson correlation coefficients indicated strong to medium positive or negative correlation among the metals in the green coffee beans. The analysis of variance results at 95% confidence level suggested that there were significant difference in the concentrations of all the metals except K between the five sampling areas. Thus, this study has revealed variation of metal composition of green coffee beans with the geographical origin of the coffee verities.

 

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A. K. Khalafallah and M. A. Ahmed. A Novel and efficient method for the synthesis of 6-amino-pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones derivatives, pyrido [2,3-d] pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones derivatives and their glycosides as a new antimetabolites agents. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 370-377.

      Abstract

Simple condensation reaction of 6-amino-pyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones with aromatic aldhydes afforded 6-(arylidene-amino)-pyrimidine-2-(1H)-thiones derivatives, that react with ¥-nitrostyrene to give pyrido[2,3-d] pyrimidine-2-(1H)-thiones derivatives , the latter compounds served as key intermediate for the synthesis of a new class of pyrimidine-S-glycosides by the reaction with α-bromoglucose tetracetate. Deacetylation of glycoside have been achieved The structure of the compounds were established and confirmed on the basis of their elemental analysis and  spectral data.

 

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     R. Tijar, M. Bourjila, A. EL Guerdaoui, B. El Merbouh, R. Drissi El Bouzaidi and A. El Gridani. Determination of preferred conformations of  benzenetricarboxylic acids by means of genetic algorithm MNC  for multi-modal search. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 378-388.

      Abstract

The structures of benzenetricarboxylic acids: hemimellitic, trimellitic and trimesic have been investigated using genetic algorithm MNC. Calculated structures and heats of formation, using semi-empiric method AM1, are reported for all the lower-energy conformers of each species. In effect, hemimellitic acid and  trimellitic in which the carboxyl groups are linked to the benzene ring in adjacent (ortho) positions assume a non-planar geometry, while trimesic acid which  having no carboxylic groups in the ortho-position adopted  a planar  structure in the  two  most stable  conformations.

 

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H.A. Latif and E.A. Elrady. Simple synthesis of some new heterocyclic derivatives incorporation coumarin -2-one moiety. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 389-395.

      Abstract

3-(1-ethoxy-3-oxo-3-phenylpropyle-1-enyl)-2H-coumarin-2-one (2), had been synthesized and reacted with some selected reagents such as hydrazine hydrate, urea, cyanoacetamide, cyanoacetohydrazide, orthophenylene diamine, ortho-aminophenol and 5-aminotriazole in ethanol piperidine solution to afford new multisubtituted 3-(pyrazol, pyrimidine, pyridine, diazepine, oxazepin, triazol)-2H- coumarin-2-one derivatives.

 

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C. P. Ukpaka and E. N. Wami. Degradation biokinetics of used and fresh lube oils in contaminated soil environment. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 396-409.

 

      Abstract

In order to solve the problems of the soil environment caused by the discharge of petroleum products especially oils used for lubrication, investigations were carried out to assess the degradation of fresh and used lube oil in soil environment using bacteria degraders present in the soil. This was done by introducing some quantities of the pollutant (fresh and used lubricating oils) into some soil samples obtained from the environment. The degradation pattern was studied by estimating the level of the microbial growth using culture method and the phenol content. This was done before the introduction of the pollutant and at two weekly intervals for 42days. Results show that the phenol content, microbial and micro species present in the soil rapidly increased to maximum and then declined. The specific rate, maximum specific rate and equilibrium constants were determined using Line-Weaver Burk Plots. Results obtained show that the bacteria which degraded the fresh and used lube oil were inhibited by the presence of phenol which was informed during the biodegradation reaction. Empirical equation for microbial growth rate using the data from the experiment was obtained. The degradation of the fresh lube oil occurred faster than the used lube oil. The equation is useful in monitoring and predicting the performance of microorganisms in bioreactor and predicting the performance of microorganisms in bioreactor containing used or fresh lube oil.

 

 

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O. U. Igwe, U. C. Obiukwu. GC/MS Characterization of volatile components of hydrocolloids from Irvingia gabonensis and Mucuna sloanei Seeds. Chemistry International 3(4) (2017) 410-415.

      Abstract

Irvingia gabonensis and Mucuna sloanei seeds are among the known soup thickeners used in the preparation of different kinds of soups and local delicacies in Southeast Nigeria. The thickening substances which are hydrocolloids have been isolated and partially characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Eighteen constituents were identified in I. gabonensis comprising aromatic (0.76 %), hydrocarbons (7.19 %), ketones (1.53 %), carboxylic/fatty acids (79.47 %) and esters (11.04 %). Twenty-one constituents were identified in M. sloanei comprising hydrocarbons (22.58 %), esters (19.42 %), fatty acids (45.64 %), amide (5.77 %), aldehyde (4.69 %) and ketones (1.89 %). This research reveals that the seed hydrocolloids of M. sloanei contain more volatile phytochemicals than that of I. gabonensis.

 

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AA

      Abstract

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Issue 10

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H. A. Shindy. Problems and solutions in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry: A Review. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 97-105.

Abstract

This paper review is recommended for undergraduate students, graduate students, chemists, dyestuffs and colorists. They will find it interesting, informative and very readable. Several multi choice problems and their solutions in the basics and fundamentals of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry were represented in this paper review. Reviewing the basic information, fundamental understanding, principles and/or the  knowledge of colors, dyes and pigments chemistry via multi choice problems and their solutions is interesting type of reviewing and can be used as an excellent tool for measuring and/or test the deep understanding of undergraduate and graduate students for colors, dyes and pigments chemistry. The paper includes, contains and/or covers topics like, the relation between color and constitution and/or Witt's theory, fibers, definitions for dyes and pigments and other definitions and vital informations in color, dyes and pigments chemistry. The paper also involve synthesis, properties, classifications and uses of many aromatic and/or heterocyclic dyes. Such dyes, like nitro dyes, nitroso dyes, azo dyes, diarylmethane dyes, triarylmethane dyes, anthraquinone dyes, cyanine dyes, azine dyes, phthaleine dyes, indigoid dyes, acridine dyes, xanthen dyes and phthalocyanine dyes. This paper review acts as a mordant and/or stabilizers for some of the basic informations, principles and/or the knowledge in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry. It is valuable both for getting an overview in the field of color, dyes and pigments chemistry and as a mine of information for the dyestuff chemists. In addition, this paper review can be used and/or will be most valuable in domestic and/or international chemistry competitions in organic chemistry as general and particularly, in colors, dyes and pigments chemistry. Besides, this paper review can be printed and used as a thesis and/or as a note book students learning and lectures. Also, it is can be used in  students examinations tests in chemistry departments and/or chemistry institutions of any domestic and/or international university. 

 

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V. O. Izionworu and Maxwell Okpara Ukeame. Effective service delivery through quality management system (QMS) in oil and gas servicing companies, a case study of selected firms, Port Harcourt. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 106-113.

Abstract

This study investigated the impact of Quality Management System (QMS) on effective service delivery in Oil and Gas Servicing Companies in selected firms in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The opinion of 50 respondents were sampled using questionnaires, interviews as well as observation from journals and texts used in this work to examine the Quality Management System (QMS) of the selected firms. Using simple percentages and the Chi-square () test of hypotheses, it was hypothetically established that the implementation of QMS practices, has impacted the work process, procedure and improvement on quality over the years in the Oil and Gas Servicing companies in Port Harcourt Nigeria. The research identified an adopted use of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) tool as a continual quality improvement initiative developed in the local content oil and gas servicing operation for equipment handling, management and to drive sustained improved performance quality processes as a key driver of a progressive that will place local content companies as an options for producing companies and at par with multinational oil and gas companies. 

 

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N. C. Ngobiri and Y. Li. Inhibition of pipeline steel corrosion in acidic environment using sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 114-122.

Abstract

The anti-corrosive properties of sulphadoxine + pyrimethamine (S+P) on the corrosion of pipeline steel in acidic environment were investigated using electrochemical techniques. The results obtained showed an excellent inhibition efficiency which increased with increase in inhibitor concentration. The corrosion inhibition efficiency increased up to 99.04 % at 0.01M S+P and decreased with rise in temperature down to 85.93 % at 333 K and 0.01 M S+P, suggesting a physiosorptive mechanism of adsorption. Also the adsorption data was fitted into Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherms, while the inhibitive action was shown to proceed by mixed inhibition mode. 

 

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Anjani Solankee and Riki Tailor. Rapid and efficient synthesis of newer heterocyclic 2-azetidinone and 5-benzylidine-4-oxo-thiazolidine compounds and their pharmacological studies. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 123-134.

Abstract

A straightforward rapid and efficient protocol for the synthesis of 2-azetidinone (D1-10) and 5-benzylidine-4-oxo-thiazolidine (F1-10) has been designed and synthesized in order to find newer antimicrobial compounds. The structure of entitle compounds have been evaluated on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR as well as elemental microanalysis. The title compounds were screened for their preliminary in vitro antibacterial activity against a panel of selected pathogenic bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96), Escherichia coli (MTCC 443), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424) using cup-plate agar diffusion method at 40 µg/ml concentration. Out of synthesized compounds, compound nos. D4, D5, D7, D8, D9and D10 have shown outstanding inhibitory effect against all pathogens and consider as the best bioactive desired antibacterial analogue of the series as compare to standard drugs Ampicilline and Chloramphenicol.

 

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Kemi Damilola Ogundipe and Adesola Babarinde. Comparative study on batch equilibrium biosorption of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) using plantain (Musa paradisiaca) flower: kinetics, isotherm, and thermodynamics. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 135-149.

Abstract

The potential of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) flower to remove Cd(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions has been investigated under different process parameters like pH, contact time, biomass dose and initial metal ion concentration. The optimum pH for the biosorption of each of the metal ions is pH 6. The kinetic data obtained were subjected to four kinetic models, among which the pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to be the best model that describes the biosorption of each of the metal ions. The equilibrium sorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and D-R isotherms. In each case, the Freundlich isotherm model gave the best fit giving the sorption intensity (n) values of 1.17, 0.91 and 0.90 which indicate favourable sorption of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. The heat of the sorption process was estimated from Temkin Isotherm model and the mean free energy was estimated from D-R isotherm model to be 312.81Jmol-1, 223.61Jmol-1 and 316.55Jmol-1 for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Thermodynamically, the biosorption of each of the metal ions is endothermic and the order of spontaneity of the biosorption process being Cd(II)>Zn(II)>Pb(II). Similarly, positive change in entropy was observed for each, the order of disorderliness is Cd(II)>Zn(II)=Pb(II). 

 

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S. Isah, A. A. Oshodi and V. N. Atasie. Physicochemical properties of cross linked acha (digitaria exilis) starch with citric acid. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 150-157.

Abstract

Acha (Digitaria exilis) starch was isolated and crosslinked using citric acid. Physicochemical properties including solubility, water and oil absorption capacities, bulk density, foam capacity, pasting viscosity and granule morphology were determined. Decrease in these properties, except for the emulsion capacity (from 36 to 38%) and least gelation concentration (LGC) which increased from 6% to 8% were observed with modified derivative. General decline was observed with water absorption capacity (488% to 465%); oil absorption capacity (122 to 116%); pH of starch slurry (6.85 to 6.45); bulk density (0.5 to 0.41g/ml) and foam capacity (4.0 to 3.0%).The starch granule morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross linking may not have affected the shape but appearance and structural arrangements of the starch granules differ upon modification. The starch granules retain its polygonal shape and the granule size ranges between 6um to 8.57 um.   The infrared spectra of native acha starch and chemically modified derivative shown similar peaks, except for the additional peak in the cross-linked sample at 1614 cm-1 indicating the carbonyl bands stretching vibrations. Starch utilization as a food or feed relates to its physical and chemical properties. Cross linking altered these functional characteristics. Thus cross linking of Acha starch may find potential applications as good emulsifying agents, pharmaceutical excipients, disintegrants and drug carrier formulation. 

 

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Reena Patel, Shailesh kumar, Abhishek Verma and Sheila Srivastava. Kinetic and thermodynamic properties of pharmaceutical drug (Gabapentin) by potassium bromate (KBrO3) in presence of micro amount of Ir(III) chloride as catalyst in acidic medium. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 158-164.

Abstract

The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of pharmaceutical drug (gabapentine) by potassium bromate (KBrO3) in presence of Micro amount of Ir(III) chloride as catalyst in acidic medium was studied in the temperature range 30 to 450 C. The reaction is carried out in the presence of mercuric acetate as a scavenger for chloride ion. 1-carboxy cyclohexane l-acetic acid was obtained as the oxidation product and identified chromatographically. The rate law followed a first order and zero order dependence with respect to KBrO3 and GBP respectively. The reaction followed first order with respect to Ir(III) chloride and [H+].Negligible effect of [Hg(OAc)2] and ionic strength of the medium was observed. Chloride ion positively influenced the rate of reaction. The values of rate constants observed at different temperatures (30 to 450C) were utilized to calculate the activation parameters. Feasible mechanism is proposed which are be composed with the kinetics, stochiometry and product of the reaction.  The rate law has been derived from obtained kinetic data. 

 

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V. R. Remya, V. K. Abitha. K, Priya Singh Rajput, Ajay Vasudeo Rane and Aastha Dutta. Silver nanoparticles green synthesis: A mini review. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 165-171.

Abstract

Nanotechnology is a significant field of contemporary research dealing with design, synthesis, and manipulation of particle structures ranging from in the region of 1-100 nm. Nanoparticles (NPs) have broad choice of applications in areas such as fitness care, cosmetics, foodstuff and feed, environmental health, mechanics, optics, biomedical sciences, chemical industries, electronics, space industries, drug-gene delivery, energy science, optoelectronics, catalysis, single electron transistors, light emitters, nonlinear optical devices, and photo-electrochemical applications. Nano Biotechnology is a speedily mounting scientific field of producing and constructing devices, an important area of research in nano biotechnology is the synthesis of NPs with different chemical compositions, sizes and morphologies, and controlled dispersities. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This assessment presents a general idea of silver nanoparticle preparation. The aim of this analysis article is, therefore, to replicate on the existing state and potential prediction, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries. 

 

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Mesert Abebe, Atakilt Abebe and Alemayehu Mekonnen. Assessment of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of crude extracts of Verbena officinalis linn root or atuch (Amharic). Chemistry International 3(2) 172-184.

Abstract

Verbena officinalis Linn is a traditionally known medicinal plant which is used against a number of diseases including inflammatory conditions. In this study its antioxidant activity (reducing powers, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activities), ferric reduction activity potential(FRAP), total flavonoid concentration and antimicrobial activities of 80%, 90%, 100% methanol  and chloroform  extracts of V. officinalis Linn root and 90% and100%  methanol  leaf extracts were determined. Its antioxidant activity increases with increase in amount of extract (10% to 40%v/v). Total flavonoid content(TFC) varied from 73.32 ± 0.002 mgQE/100g  of dry weight (90% methanol) to 42.39 ±0.032 mgQE/100g dry weight (chloroform),  2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), radical scavenging activity (%) was varied between 87.39% (90% methanol) to 45.57% (chloroform) while Ferric reducing antioxidant power was observed between  372.93 ± 0.04 mgAAE/100 g extract (90% methanol) to 129.41 ± 0.026 mgAAE/100 g  chloroform in  the root extract. The methanolic extract of the leaf showed less antioxidant activity than the methanolic extract of the root. Crude extracts of V. officinalis root showed various degree of antimicrobial activity towards drug resistance microbial pathogens. Growth inhibition tests against bacterial pathogens demonstrated concentration dependence. Moreover, gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to V. officinalis root extract when compared to gram negative bacteria. In general V. officinalis root and leave extracts possess strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. 

 

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N. C. Ngobiri and K. Okorosaye-Orubite. Adsorption and corrosion inhibition characteristics of two medicinal molecules. Chemistry International 3(2) (2017) 185-194.

Abstract

The corrosion inhibition characteristics of two medicinal molecules Phenylalanine and Rutin on mild steel in 1.0M Hydrochloric acid were evaluated using gravimetric method.  Corrosion inhibition efficiency of 83.78 and 90.40 % was obtained respectively after seven days. However, Phenylalanine showed weakly accumulative higher corrosion inhibition efficiency. The presence of both molecules in the corrosive environment   reduced the corrosion rate constant and increased the material half-life. Thermodynamic data calculated suggests a spontaneous adsorption of the molecules on the mild steel’s surface. 

 

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