Issue 8

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Shahryar Jafarinejad. Odours emission and control in the petroleum refinery: A review. Current Science Perspectives 2(3) (2016) 78-82

Abstract

The petroleum refinery can generate emissions to the air, to water and to the soil. As odours can be created in the petroleum refinery; in this study, some typical refinery odours; their possible sources; the most probable compounds contributing to the odours; odour measurement; threshold of some compounds which may be found in refinery emissions; odour emission factor (OEF); the techniques which can be used to reduce or control the odour generation in the petroleum refinery have been reviewed. Odours in a petroleum refinery are mainly created by sulfur compounds (e.g. hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, sulfides, disulfides); nitrogen compounds (e.g. ammonia, amines); and hydrocarbons (e.g. aromatics). The use of nitrate-based products in septic water areas; reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odour generation by covering some units of wastewater treatment plant (e.g. CPI and API separators) with closed sealed covers; reduction of odours from water buffer tanks by maintaining the smallest possible surface area of oil and water in contact with air via using a fixed roof tank or a floating roof tank; reduction and control of fugitive emissions; control of flares and prevention or reduction of emissions from them; control of fuel quality; the use of scrubbing systems for odorous gases; and the use of incineration systems for odorous gases may be used to reduce or control the odour generation in the petroleum refinery.

           

     C. P. Ukpaka and S. A. Amadi. Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on bioremediation of crude oil polluted land. Current Science Perspectives 2(4) (2016) 83-94

Abstract

With the frequent reports of oil spillages in the Niger Delta, there is need to seek for a cost-effective method for mediation of crude oil impacted soils. This particular study focuses on the effect of Nutrient sources: NPK fertilizer and goat droppings on crude oil polluted soil from Afam in Oyigbo LGA of Rivers State. The study lasted 9 weeks due to financial constraint. Laboratory tests were conducted at ldeyi Laboratory, to check for changes in pH, total hydrocarbon (THC), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Phosphate, Nitrate, Potassium and Moisture Content. The effects of the above mentioned physiochemical properties on seed germination of Beans and maize and their growth variables such as plant height, plant leaf length and leaf width were also investigated. Fertilizer/goat droppings of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50g were added to contaminate 20 polyethylene bags in random design. The treatment samples were tested at two (2) weeks interval and last test was conducted in one (1) week interval. The planting of beans and maize seedling was conducted after one (1) week of planting i.e 9th week. It was observed on conducting lab test on the 9th week that the application of goat droppings was able to ameliorate the levels of total hydrocarbon from 7568mg/kg to about 439mg/kg as against 500mg/kg produced by NPK fertilizer, indicative of a better remediation in goat droppings application. By this work I developed a model to generate the level of reduction of the Total Hydrocarbon with respect to time in weeks. Result was compared with the known regression model which shows no significant difference in rates of biodegradation of concentration of Total Hydrocarbon on the use of fertilizer (NPK) and goat dropping.

    John Kenneth Mensah, Charles Kwoseh, Akuoko Yesman, Ali Rahinatu Bawah, Stephen Tawiah Jr., Charles Anamoah and Malik Borigu. Assessment of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the secondary metabolites produced by pure cultured Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus parasiticus and Mucor spp. Current Science Perspectives 2(4) (2016) 95-104

Abstract

Secondary metabolites biosynthesized by pure cultures of three soil-habitat fungi: Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus parasiticus and Mucor spp. were evaluated for their antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activity in vitro. Bioactive compounds were extracted separately with ethyl acetate and hexane from the culture supernatant and from intracellular debris of each fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, steroids, anthraquinones, terpenoids and saponins in the ethyl acetate media and intracellular extracts. The presence of coumarins and terpenoids were recorded in the hexane extracts of media and intracellular materials. Thin layer chromatographic profiling of all the extracts confirmed the presence of multiple compounds in each extract. Antimicrobial activities of extracts were assessed via broth dilution method  against  an array of microorganisms that included two gram-positive  bacteria (Staphylococcus  aureusBacillus subtilis);  two  gram-negative  bacteria (Escherichia  coliSalmonella  typhi)  and  one  fungus (Candida albicans). For all fungi, the hexane extracts exhibited a more potent microbial inhibitory activity as demonstrated by the low recorded MIC values: 0.10 mg/mL for Curvularia lunata, 0.068 mg/mL for Aspergillus parasiticus and 0.018 mg/mL for Mucor spp. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, ethylacetate media extract  and hexane media extract of Mucor spp. showed substantial antioxidant activities as demonstrated by their relatively low IC50 values of 25.19 and 33.78 µg/mL respectively. Extracts of Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus parasiticus and Mucor spp. are potential new sources of novel bioactive antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

             

C. P. Ukpaka. Comparison of degradation of benzene, toluene and phenol in both fresh and salt water media. Current Science Perspectives 2(4) (2016) 105-115

Abstract

Research work was conducted to demonstrate the relationship between some aromatic hydrocarbon in fresh and salt water media. The comparison of the degradation rate of toluene in fresh and salt water media revealed a good match in the substrate degradation per unit time. The rate of degradation of benzene, toluene and phenol decreases with increase in period of exposure. The reaction mechanisms were inhibited by various factors such as salinity, P+ , temperature etc. The medium of contamination play an activity role in effective remediation of contaminated environment. The nature of the functional parameters of environment may cause inhibition in the process in which the substance found in the area may activate the programme. Degradation of Benzene, Toluene and Phenol is faster in fresh water them salt water medium; this can be attributed to the variation in the physiochemical parameters of the media considered during the investigation.  

 

Syed Khuram Hassan, Syeda Mona Hassan, Samra Naseem and Munawar Iqbal. Evaluation of factors affecting the fiber quality used for yarn production. Current Science Perspectives 2(4) (2016) 116-119

Abstract

The fiber quality has direct effect on yarn quality and its market value. In present investigation, the fiber quality was evaluated from January to December 2010 of Bahawalpur, Pakistan origin cotton fiber. The cotton was process for fiber formation and fiber quality was evaluated on the basis of micronaire, moisture, trash, floating fiber, staple length and uniformity ratio values and compared with MTM standard fiber quality values. The micronaire values were higher than the MTM values from January to August and within acceptable range from September to December 2010. The moisture contents were recorded in the range of 8.22-10.13% and these values were within the MTM standard. The trash values of cotton fiber were also within the acceptable range of MTM standard. The floating fibre values of cotton were beyond the standard and staple length was lower than MTM standard. The uniformity ratio of cotton fiber was slightly lower than the average MTM range, however, within the minimum required level.