Issue 3

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Asif, M., 2015. Pharmacological activities and phytochemistry of various plant containing coumarin derivatives. Current Science Perspectives 1(3), 77-90.

Abstract

The physiological effects of natural coumarins are extensive. Humans are exposed to them in everyday life. The ethnopharmacological and biological properties of some natural coumarins have been investigated. These coumarins and furanocoumarins showed anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial,anti-cough and colds and anti-arthritis by the presence of furanocoumarins (psoralen) and xanthotoxin as defensive compounds. Coumarins are considered as phytoalexins as defence substances. The phototoxicity of linear furanocoumarins (psoralens) has been useful property, this psoralen and long wave ultraviolet treatment has been used for psoriasis. The osthol, a simple coumarin from Angelica archangelica, is useful compound for investigations on ligand-receptor interactions and for receptor-mediated regulations of intracellular free calcium concentrations. Coumarins can be beneficial for the plants themselves as natural biocontrolling antipathogenic compounds and for humans as remedy for hyperproliferative skin diseases. The coumarin-containing plants are valuable as dietary supplements on the basis of their mild antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The ability of dicoumarol to inhibit blood clotting and warfarin is used as an anticoagulant. Several biological activities have been reported in natural-occurring coumarins, from photo sensitizers to vasodilatation. Recently, the interest has been given to synthetic coumarin dervatives, such as fluorinated and 1-azo coumarins, which displayed moderate analgesia properties, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

 

  

A. Ali, Khalil-ur-Rahman, N. Jahan, M. Iqbal and M. Abbas. Clinical epidemiological study of Hepatitis B and C. Current Science Perspectives 1(3) (2015) 91 -95.

Abstract

Hepatitis is the inflammation of liver and is caused by some specific RNA & DNA viruses. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a partially double stranded DNA virus. HBV infection is parentally transmitted and is not transmitted through intact skin. HCV is a single stranded RNA virus and HCV shows considerable heterogeneity, particularly in the viral envelope. The clinical effect of adefovir dipivoxil regimen was compared with lamivudine in the management of chronic hepatitis B patients.  The clinical effect of regimen of peg interferon alfa 2a with those of a regimen of interferon alfa 2a in the initial treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C was also compared.  High prevalence of HCV in female in Pakistan may be due to illiteracy and non preventable behavior of female. Peg interferon alfa-2a was found more potent as it was associated with a higher rate of virological response than that of interferon alfa-2a at week 24 (72.7% versus 68.18%). The response of adefovir dipivoxil associated with a higher rate of HBV DNA reduction with those of a regimen of lamivudine in the management of patients with chronic hepatitis B was (72.7% versus 62.5%). Adverse events were similar across groups; includingupper respiratory symptoms, headache, back pain and diarrhea.

 

 

John K. Mensah, Charles Kwoseh, Nicholas Banahene, Samuel Aweinatey Atuilik, Daniel Oppong and Malik Borigu. Assessment of the Antimicrobial Activities of the Secondary Metabolites Produced by Pure Cultured Trichoderma koningii, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum. Current Science Perspectives 1(3) (2015) 96-101.

Abstract

Fungi have been source organisms for drug discovery, but remain unexplored source materials for natural product in Ghana. This study provides preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility assessment of crude extracts of secondary metabolites derived from select soil-habitat fungi. Pure cultures of Trichoderma koningii, Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum,isolated from soil, were fermented for secondary metabolites in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB) for 21 days. Bioactive compounds were isolated with ethylacetate and crude extracts screened for antimicrobial activitiesagainst a panel of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomanas aeruginosa, and Candida albican (fungus) in broth dilution assay. Extracts displayed variable antimicrobial activities that were microorganism-specific and comparatively low in relation to the strength of the activities displayed by the clinically used standard agents Ciprofloxacin (antibacterial) and Ketoconazole (antifungal).  This study provides access to previously unexplored extract source materials for anti-infectives.