Biochemical profiling of leaf, stem bark and root of Enantia chlorantha native to Akwa Ibom, Nigeria: A comparative analysis

Itohowo Okon Akpan, Ozioma Achugasim,Onoriode Christian Eruteya and Regina Enyidiya Ogali

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The present investigation was carried out to explore the bio-activities of Enantia chlorantha Oliv (Annonaceae) commonly known as African yellow wood. The root, stem and leaf of E. chlorantha were extracted with ethanol in soxhlet extractor. Their phytochemical analysis revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, anthraquinones, proteins, aldehydes/ketones and carboxylic acids in all the extracts except leaves extract which contain tannins in addition. The extracts were screened in vitro for their antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus thuringensis strain EB-151, Bacillus tequilensis strain ADIP3, Bacillus cereus strain SB2, Bacillus pumilus strain m414, Sphingobacterium mizutaii strain AUMC b-161, Bacillus subtilis strain AIMST 2ME1, Bacillus cereus strain CF7 and Lysinbacillus sphaericus III) and Gram-negative bacteria (Providencia rettgeri strain RCB 200, Proteus vulgaris strain MWG 20141026, Alcaligenes faecalis strain L48, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PG1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 335K55 and Escherichia coli strain sanji.); out of which eight of strains were susceptible to the extracts and six were resistant to all the extracts. This study has opened a frontier for the possible application of the extracts in the control of potential pathogen.