Antibacterial studies of molecularly engineered graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) to quaternary ammonium hydroxide (g-C3N4-OH) composite: An application towards generating new antibiotics

Ibrahim Muhammad and Jamilu Usman

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A new molecular modification of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) scaffold to functionalize quaternary ammonium hydroxide (g-C3N4-OH) by transforming the surface ‒NH2 and ‒NH functional groups to quaternary methyl ammonium iodide via treatment with methyl iodide followed by exchange of ion with 0.1 M KOH is demonstrated. The g-C3N4-OH was characterized using XRD, FTIR, FESEM, HRTEM, and acid-base titration. Tested as an antibacterial agent for the first time, the synthesized g-C3N4-OH composite demonstrated an excellent inhibitory activity that range between 4 to 19 mm against standard laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus (gram +ve), Bacillus subtilis (gram +ve), Escherichia coli (gram –ve) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram –ve). More importantly, the g-C3N4-OH composite is more activite on gram negative bateria.